We may associate philology with a study of poetry and other literary forms. However, philology embraces also linguistics, and linguistic studies have progressed into the neural reality of language. Naturally, dissecting tissue in order to analyze language would be absurd. Facts of neurophysiology yet may add valuable insight into language phenomena.

Science does not have to mean a mechanistic or laboratory oriented perspective. Whereas human nervous systems can be viewed as capable of information processing — humans have developed scientific and logical skills — the thesis supports the notion of a language faculty rather than isolated brain areas or devices, and holds human awareness as well as personality for indispensable.

Of the many definitions of feedback, those of output return, effect reversal, or acoustic retransmission have been widely used, mostly with reference to mechanical devices. Psychological meaning to be that of evaluative behavior, feedback has become associated with opinion exchange. Neurology began applying the term of information processing  to human bodily structures in the XX century.

Human nervous systems have been evidenced to use inner, biological feedback already at the level of the single cell. We can think about the inner feedback on an example. Even if consciously wearing headphones, most humans reflexly raise voices to speak, unless exercised not to do so. Speaking loud is an intuitive way to compensate for a limitation in auditory feedback. In unimpeded humans, the inner requirement for the natural process approximates a drive.

A drive may be defined as a basic and instinctive need, an inner urge to stimulate response, incite, or repress action (the Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989), as well as a strong motivating tendency or instinct related to self-preservation (the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition, 2006, 2000).

The feedback performance as in the thesis does not refer to evaluative or opinion-related responses that everyday language use may connote. The notion of a drive does not involve sex-oriented behaviors.

I defended The role of feedback in language processing in the year 2000. Stanisław Puppel of Adam Mickiewicz University was the supervising professor. The print is my authorial presentation to offer the thesis also with footnotes. Explications for the annotated text are marked AHD4, when referring to the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition.



All rights reserved. The author reserves the right of translation.

The work is an intellective outcome based on legally available printed resources which are all acknowledged in the bibliography. The thesis did not involve, as well as does not require, any experiments.

The thesis does not support biofeedback and other artificial feedback techniques or technologies. In the light of the importance of the natural processes, such techniques or technologies might prove harmful.

The website is still under construction.


Human language processing can be viewed as human processing of information. With the concepts of processing of options, a program, and a processing system being necessary for any consideration of information processing phenomena, the use of terminology associated with computer science should not be understood as an attempt to draw close an analogy, as natural language remains a scope of skill unmatched by artificial intelligence. Therefore, human neurophysiology shall be the primary area of reference for the following discussion of the role of feedback in language behavior.




4 Comments on “Home”

    • teresapelka Says:

      Hi, never read the ‘Lingua ex Machina’, will take a look some time later.

      My thesis does not support behaviorist or program oriented approaches to language. To the contrary, it defends the view that the natural feedback capacities are indispensable for language – they are as important as the DNA for human sustention.

      Thanks for stopping by :)

  1. Adam Warren Says:

    This is really impressive. I am going to bookmark this page and journey into it as time allows.
    I sense that digital engineering does mimic aspects of brain behaviour, and that neurochemistry is probably digital in some respects (“fire|don’t fire”…). I shall look further into your thesis to see if this idea of mine stands up to your analysis.
    Thank you.

    With kind regards,

    Adam Warren, FRSA.

    • teresapelka Says:

      I don’t think human information processing would be digital: the term “information” is much older than information technologies. Neurons have the all-or-none type of response. Already at local levels, the nervous system makes information pools to overcome the limitations of the option-ridden response, however.

      Thank you for reading.


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