• Tests by Ladefoged showed speech and language dependence on feedback without exception.
  • Human DNA requires cellular feedback for active protein.
  • Human endurance under feedback impoverishment has been proved lower than for fasting.

    Not only on these grounds, the role of feedback in human language processing can be posited to approximate a drive.

The term language processing is not to imply that people only can operate on inputs or outputs. It is obvious that humans are capable of creating own discourse. Our human talking or writing — as well as reading or comprehending spoken language — yet depend on neural processing phenomena.

As a mathematical model, the Hodgkin-Huxley hypothesis has lost prominence in neurophysiological study. Cellular and systemic feedback processes remain a fact. In persons of altered cognitive scopes, feedback interference can result in drive-like or driven behaviors. It is in unimpeded humans that the inner requirement for natural feedback only approximates a drive, for language.

We can think about the inner feedback on an example. Let us think we are talking with someone and the person asks us to put headphones on, to try to continue with limited hearing. We would reflexly raise our voices to speak, unless we have exercised not to do so. Speaking loud would be an intuitive way to compensate for a constraint in auditory feedback. It is also a feedback capacity to learn to keep own voice down, despite auricular obstruction.

I either formed the footnotes independently, or based them on the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Fourth Edition, 2006, 2000), marked AHD4. Please mind that a thesis never is meant to be a compendium. A thesis presents facts and compares theory only to the extent the argument necessitates. For further details, refer to medical, psychological, and linguistic resources.

The text is free for fair use, that is, criticism, comment, teaching, scholarship, and research, provided that reference to the author is retained. I am open to comments or questions at the e-mail address enclosed.

Read more: Foreword

Teresa Pelka



The website is still under construction.


A principled occurrence to become affirmed in neurophysiological as well as psychological aspects of human living, dependence on feedback functions can be acknowledged to approximate a drive, the relevant instinct being that for self-preservation.

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Chapter 1. Neurophysiology of feedback

Positive and negative feedback processes have been evidenced in human nervous systems already at the level of the single cell, during electric potential change.

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Chapter 2.The role of feedback in language learning

Focus to learning by an individual person might impel a revised intellection on feedback that would consider a return to part the input.

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Chapter 3. The role of feedback in language use

Program and feedback can be compared for a neuro-behavioral priority in language, the human instinct to self-sustain to be the reference.

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Chapter 4. Feedback deficiency and language impediment

Conscious human experience is impossible without a human mind. The neural reality of the brain is indispensable for the working of the structure. The working is highly feedback-mediated.

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The role of feedback in language processing can be posited to approximate a drive. Psychologically, a drive is an inner urge to stimulate response, incite or repress action, as well as a basic and instinctive need.

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See also: MY GRAMMAR


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Where authors and readers come together! ©Teresa Pelka.

The extras have material for grammar as well as knowledge about the USA. Links guide to a dedicated Travel in Grammar website, travelingrammar.com

 We humans live ON Earth. We usually view lands or seas as extents. We give at least psychological borders to areas IN which we are. We perceive routes and ways TO places. We happen to be AT landmarks and places.

Such are natural human variables for space, in English.

We can employ these variables for language (Chapter 4).

Our lives, experiences, knowledge, or personalities can be our thinking grounds. We can symbolize the grounds as logical extents.

Activities IN progress are not full extents of our grounds. We can tell what has happened TO a time or event we choose to mark, as well as what we have been progressing AT.

 We can have the value ON for our earthling basic variable. It can help us make sense with the stative verb use, the words for love, hate, and thinking.

We learn to think real-time. We do not memorize. Importantly, we do not change language. We refer for examples to the Corpus of Contemporary American English, COCA.

Our earthling logic does not require definitions or rules. We visualize, we use concepts. We refer to natural learning, that is, child language acquisition.

To the Upper Intermediate level, the grammar venture consists of 4 parts

Feel welcome to the book information.

The work is registered with the US Library of Congress:

TX 7-497-087, TX 7-648-439.

Other pieces

Try something

Teachers, authors, and books do not agree on what we call what in grammar. Some reject the Conditional completely. We can have another thought: Language Form Relativity . . .

It is common sense to take a method and try it.

If it fails, admit it frankly and try another. But above all, try something.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, American President

More …

Grammar ― why think about space

As Miller and Johnson-Laird put it, “The intimate relation of space and time concepts is most apparent in motion, which involves both spatial and temporal changes”. Reference to place belongs with human minds, and language has it.

More …

Parameters and devices

I am unable to develop any fondness for the term “device”. We mostly associate devices with things to be operated, and no such governance over speech could be my ideal.

More …

Other places

The toolbox republic

My HubPages: Pure nonsense remains cherished in Poland. Born in Poland — and no one ever has choice on the place — you cannot change your citizenship unless the President allows it, says a regulation.

More …

The conscious mind of Emily Dickinson

My Language and Mind: When we look at poetry by Emily Dickinson today, we get strange big letters and a multitude of dashes which yet cannot give the special Bees, Birds, or Ears any real sense. To blame the reader — “you know, the author was a mystic, metaphysical, only high minds get it” — a Mystical Bee remains unappealing on a High Mind as well.

More …

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