• Tests by Ladefoged showed speech and language dependence on feedback without exception.
  • Human DNA requires cellular feedback for active protein.
  • Human endurance under feedback impoverishment has been proved lower than for fasting.

    Not only on these grounds, the role of feedback in human language processing can be posited to approximate a drive.

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The term language processing is not to imply that people can only operate on inputs or outputs. It is obvious that humans are capable of creating own discourse. Our human talking or writing — as well as reading or comprehending spoken language — yet depend on our neural processing.

As a mathematical model, the Hodgkin-Huxley hypothesis has lost prominence in neurophysiological study. The hypothesis that cell membranes had ion channels yet remains affirmed by Erwin Neher, Bert Sakmann, and Roderick MacKinnon. Cellular and systemic feedback processes are a fact.

In persons of altered cognitive scopes, feedback interference can result in drive-like or driven behaviors. It is in unimpeded humans that the inner requirement for natural feedback only approximates a drive, for language. Obviously, the observation is to indicate a factor, not to try justifying all human activity.

We can think about the inner feedback on an example. Let us think we are talking with someone and the person asks us to put headphones on, to try to continue with limited hearing. We would reflexly raise our voices to speak, unless we would have exercised not to do so. Speaking loud would be an intuitive way to compensate for a constraint in auditory feedback. It is also a feedback capacity to learn to keep own voice down, despite auricular obstruction.

I either formed the footnotes independently, or based them on the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Fourth Edition, 2006, 2000), marked AHD4. Please mind that a thesis never is meant to be a compendium. A thesis presents facts and compares theory only to the extent the argument necessitates. For further details, refer to medical, psychological, and linguistic resources.

The text is free for fair use, that is, criticism, comment, teaching, scholarship, and research, provided that reference to the author is retained. I am open to comments or questions at the e-mail address enclosed.

Read more: Foreword

Teresa Pelka



The website is still under construction.

See also: MY GRAMMAR


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Where authors and readers come together! ©Teresa Pelka.

The extras have material for grammar as well as knowledge about the USA. Links guide to a dedicated Travel in Grammar website, travelingrammar.com

 We humans live ON Earth. We usually view lands or seas as extents. We give at least psychological borders to areas IN which we are. We perceive routes and ways TO places. We happen to be AT landmarks and places.

Such are natural human variables for space, in English.

We can employ these variables for language (Chapter 4).

Our lives, experiences, knowledge, or personalities can be our thinking grounds. We can symbolize the grounds as logical extents.

Activities IN progress are not full extents of our grounds. We can tell what has happened TO a time or event we choose to mark, as well as what we have been progressing AT.

 We can have the value ON for our earthling basic variable. It can help us make sense with the stative verb use, the words for love, hate, and thinking.

We learn to think real-time. We do not memorize. Importantly, we do not change language. We refer for examples to the Corpus of Contemporary American English, COCA.

Our earthling logic does not require definitions or rules. We visualize, we use concepts. We refer to natural learning, that is, child language acquisition.

To the Upper Intermediate level, the grammar venture consists of 4 parts

Feel welcome to the book information.

The work is registered with the US Library of Congress:

TX 7-497-087, TX 7-648-439.

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