Artificial intelligence has patterned after human structures for years. In consequence, artificial parsing has come to be used for teaching and diagnosis. Computers rely on programs. The work discusses human information processing, with focus to the role of feedback in language. Human information processing differs from artificial considerably.


  • Tests by Ladefoged showed speech and language dependence on feedback without exception.
  • Human DNA requires cellular feedback for active protein.
  • Human endurance under feedback impoverishment has been proved lower than for fasting.


Not only on these grounds, the role of feedback in human language processing can be posited to approximate a drive.




I defended the thesis in year 2000, at Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland, earning my M.A. degree in American English, specialization psycholinguistics.


The term language processing is not to imply that people can only operate on inputs or outputs. Humans are capable of creating own discourse. Our human talking or writing — as well as reading or comprehending spoken language — yet depend on our neural processing.


As a mathematical model, the Hodgkin-Huxley hypothesis has lost prominence in neurophysiological study. The theory that cell membranes had ion channels yet remains affirmed by Erwin Neher, Bert Sakmann, and Roderick MacKinnon. Cellular and systemic feedback is fact.


We can reason about inner feedback on an example. Let us think we are talking with someone and the person asks us to put headphones on, to try to continue with limited hearing. We would reflexly raise our voices to speak, unless we would have exercised not to do so. Speaking loud would be an intuitive way to compensate for a constraint in auditory feedback. It is also a feedback capacity to learn to keep own voice down, despite auricular obstruction.


In persons of altered cognitive scopes, feedback interference can result in drive-like or driven behaviors. It is in unimpeded humans that the inner requirement for natural feedback approximates a drive. The observation is to indicate a factor, not to try justifying all human activity.


Professor Stanisław Puppel of Adam Mickiewicz University generally mentioned the topic in class, in 1993. I began writing in 1999, and defended my work in year 2000, earning my Master of Arts degree in philology, specialization American English and psycholinguistics. Mr. Puppel was the supervising professor. The print is my authorial presentation.


The thesis takes up feedback as a biological phenomenon at the cellular level, examines effects of feedback processes within the human nervous system, and analyzes their importance to human psychology as well as language learning, use, and deficit. The denotation for feedback performance is that of a closed-loop capability. The term does not refer to evaluative or opinion-related behavior that everyday language may connote. The notion of a drive does not involve any sex-oriented function. The thesis regards human nerve, muscle, and cognitive structures with strictly linguistic relevance.


The text is free for fair use, that is, criticism, comment, teaching, scholarship, and research, provided that reference to the author is retained. I am open to comments or questions at the e-mail address enclosed.

Teresa Pelka,, 978-1-312-32017-8


document translation


American English generative grammar

The more economical we are managing our grammar, the better we do. Everyone thinks, speaks, or writes in real time. There is often no time to consult rules and definitions.


We can use cognitive variables, to manage our language matter.


There are four Aspects in English, the Simple, Progressive, Perfect, and Perfect Progressive. We can map these Aspects with four prepositions, ON, IN, TO, and AT, for a good language economy.

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