A feedback view to natural language acquisition and learning motivates a sense to apply in the field of psychology and to describe feedback as the knowledge of behavior results to influence or modify further performance (Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language, 1989). Knowledge being definable as an information scope gained via experience or study, the discourse information framework can support the psychological meaning.
Language acquisition or conscious learning do not differ in that they require relevant neural pattern formation. Both can be regarded a pursuit of relevant behavioral mastery. Knowledge of result may correspond closely with that of returning of output, however, focus to learning by an individual person might impel a revised intellection on feedback to consider a return to part the input, within own cognitive structures. Following the inquiry, the term of a feedback strategy may be proposed.
For the work without footnotes or to comment, visit Chapter 2 post
2.1. Language within a program perspective
Linguistic studies have noted on a determination at positioning speech and language within a perspective for human “programming” behavior, own or by another organism. Wiktor Jassem presents an indication by Paul Postal (1987):
“…a language is an infinite set of sentences which are triplets of phonetic, syntactic, and semantic properties generated by a finite abstract project, or grammar, which consists of sets of partially independent elements called rules and a lexicon or dictionary. Such grammars are represented in human neural systems and provide implicit knowledge of the language they define. A grammar is thus in certain ways analogous to a computer program in that it is a formal system partially determining the behaviour of a physical system (…)”
The many theories on a capacity by language to “program” behavior would belong with a different scope of discourse, also as declinable. Feedback to stay in the focus of the present work, two prominent approaches to language development can be quoted.
The nativist party posit that humans are born with DNA-encoded language universals. Nevertheless, Noam Chomsky has stated for his language acquisition device to depend on experience as releaser, as well as on exposure for perfection. The nativist tenets point to insufficiency of environmental variables and the naturalness of the postulated principles of grammar: generative universals can be discerned for unrelated languages (Akmajian et al., 1985).
Cognitive linguists insist on mental capabilities to precede language refinement (ibidem). Intellectual progress would be contingent on information exchange as well as brain maturity, the cognitivist meaning for intellective advancement to subsume ability to extract from experience and build heuristics. The approach places language learning in problem-solving contexts. Nativism or cognitivism, either would highlight human DNA programs in brain structuring. It shall be reasoned that both need feedback phenomena.
Language skill cannot work without memory. Attempts to declare a singular brain site for human memory have been failures without exception. Therefore, the present argument shall selectively adopt the neoconnectionist approach and network memory models. Bruce Derwing’s guideline to build science on the known (in Jassem, 1987) shall be the principium of the inquiry. Derwing’s study of human learning brought him to the conclusion that “no other, special mechanisms or secret abilities are necessary for learning language than learning anything else”. Brain mathematical models have been criticized as unsatisfactory (Damasio, 2000).
2.2. The closed-loop process of neural network formation
Biological maturation alone cannot account for linguistic progress, though specificity increase enhances neural integration, the nervous system to myelinate and also to regulate own bulk by apoptosis. Children of limited language exposure may never attain linguistic finesse, favorable exposure to involve standard spoken and written resources as in libraries and the media, not only language by acquainted people. Since neural schemata are essential in language biological material (Puppel, 1992), pattern establishment is part every linguistic faculty growth. Two most recognized approaches to signal management, behaviorism and connectionism, differ fundamentally.
Ivan Pavlov postulated that learning was substantiated by brain reflex patterns. He ascribed reflex forming to temporal co-occurrence of events. Pavlov’s approach, projected onto human studies and often misjudged as an associationist venture (Szewczuk, 1984), was opposed by American connectionists, who insisted on personal recognition of result or response as a competence of intrinsic affective value. The laws of learning by Edward Lee Thorndike were those of exercise, readiness, and effect. The laws can be compared with human neural pattern forming.
Respectively, exercise would increase the frequency of neural path use. Effect affirming or denying validity, readiness would be a systemic encouragement to rehearse the connectivities to have produced agreeable consequents. Literature in psychology proceeds with augmented attention to neural “labels” for affect, owing to the role in path priority (Goleman, 1997). Associative linkage between brain frontal lobes and limbic system strengthens specificity, in personal realization on the self and the environment (Vander et al., 1985).
Human inner activation may correspond with environmental circumstances. Hull (1940, in Szewczuk, 1984) defined the origin of need as a negative balance between the individual and his or her setting. A behaviorist signaling value would target a human person, either to accommodate his or her inner equilibrium, or to threaten it. Induced co-occurrence of events to force orienting responses would be allowed in the context as well. The role of concomitant conditions came to be stressed by Guthrie (1935, in Szewczuk, 1984).
Worth of simultaneity was questioned already by Thorndike, who insisted the affective component was inherent to all learning. With focus to language, personal congruity and inner equilibrium remain more than only likely to prevail over stimulation existence. For standard as well as school contexts, recognition between an impulse or mere presence is by and large individual. This would be the favored inner signaling value and not frequency or mode of signal objective incidence to encourage neural path forming, especially for educated and fluent language styles.
The affective component should not be understood for emotion alone. Affect involves consciousness and perception, these to necessitate memory, thinking, and personal autonomy. Neural patterning for language can be presented with a closed-loop schema, the inner state of actuation to engage the individual affective state, and to interdepend with overall neural feedback efficacy. Persons may not find all goals desirable and thus learnable, failure with acceptable skill also to entwine with affective disadvantage. Signaling value should invite and not thwart the inner equilibrium, learning for skill by principle to take personally agreeable objectives, methods, and time spans.
Figure 2. A general, closed-loop schema for neural patterning. S — Signal; A — Inner actuation state to embrace affective congruity; S1 — Memory reflection on signal; S2 — Processed signal inner representation; R1 — Response; R2 — Result.
Figure 2 is to connote actual biological linkages between neurons, as concepts on purely “functional” or “mathematical” connectivities are of no meaning to live nervous systems (Szewczuk, 1984). The generalization is not to commend an oversimplified view of human neural links. The networks are intricate as well as continually active, which precludes the intermediate layers from monitoring. The constituent nodes in the feedback-loop model of Figure 2 are to mean multi-layered structures, able to act as in Figure 3. Live neural networks might not be symmetrical.
Figure 3. A multi-layered neural network model.
The model of Figure 2 includes a memory reflection on signal, whereas it might be impossible to postulate memory-based precedents for novel phenomena. Feedback with lexical and grammatical memory yet would be part of all standard consciousness. Individual lexicons may account for peculiarities, as by majority of people when faced with unfamiliar and unusual objects. Linguistic memory also will allow new perspectives for known objects and phenomena, as well as it most often affords classifying and verbally defining new percepts, in standard words.
Affinity and chemical specificity may account for encoding processes only in a proportion. It would be hypertonic backlash (Szewczuk, 1984), a connectivity-differential and relatively higher neuron tonicity, to partake in validating human memory paths. The hypertonic activation would ensue from neural synergisms brought by signal match within existent memory structures, the process to require intercellular and cellular feedback, by a person-defined neural makeup. Figure 4 presents a generalization for hypertonic backlash as a memory pattern reinforcer.
Figure 4. Natural backlash memory reinforcement. S — Signal, R — Response within the neural network, B — Backlash reinforcement (compare Szewczuk, 1984).
To emphasize language skill, favorable inner activity state A as of Figure 2 can be argued for a vital integrant. In attaining neural synergism, personal congruity would matter in memory forming, as well as work. Further, natural neural chemistry and voltage operate on minim quantities. Already minor disturbances to inner chemical or electric equilibrium might be of adverse consequence to memory and other cognitive functions, in summary to deny validity to stimulus-response approaches for language. Already the inter-schematic level of neural pattern function can bring distinctly individual effects.
2.3. Inter-schematic communication
An absolute or universal definiens on human existence and psyche might be as implausible as undesirable. Attempts to describe human personality remain often arduous, or even controversial, as literary enterprises as well. Human learning yet needs the human person. Even the neurophysiological and species aspects of human learning that are statistic in parameter, such as the limbic or homeostatic feedforward (Vander et al., 1985), require cerebellar and cerebral functions, and these can be highly person-specific. The complementary phenomena of preattentive processing and habituation correlate with personality factors too, though part reflex. Human sensory, homeostatic, limbic, and cognitive extents engage inter-schematic neural concordance. A singular neural network model to account for human functioning is unlikely, also with focus to language.
Biological networks do not work strictly for language. They are conventional biological forms, also for cytoskeletons and endoplasms. However, there is no ground to predicate uniformity for the motor cortex and the enteric nervous system. There is no singular neural structure to explain personal noesis, just as there is no singular brain locale for human memory. Neocortical neurons, networked across brain regions, severally can give different responses (ibidem). For linguistic faculties, the asset would be a personal potential to employ own skill in unforeseen contexts, and in more than one language.
Language skill builds on neural schemata, as basic biological representations for personally integrated aspects of experience. However the integration would enhance process reliableness, the closed-loop model of Figure 2 is posited to retain validity at the network or inter-schematic level, with emphasis on the resultant connections to be feedback-mediated patterns for flexible habits, rather than strictly biological reflexes. Already orienting response stimuli isolation is person-dependent. The same holds for the more advanced processes of cognitive pursuance on variables, which is not detached from personal congruity.
Building representations, biological or mental, may not be the ultimate goal of human mindwork, and humans have been reported primarily to integrate praxic patterns for skilled behavior (Szewczuk, 1984). Efficient procedural convergence can be proposed for the primary formative in encoding, inactive information to be subject to forgetting (ibidem). Neural layering has been classed into two types, the symbolic and the sub-symbolic connectivities (Puppel, 1992). The sub-symbolic layers would merge for praxic and motor adeptness, symbolic networks to build declarative scopes for intellectual routines as well as creativity.
Pattern constant practice is not necessary in humans. Neural networks can function in basically stochastic or deterministic manners. The random mode may be observed intrapersonally, with volitional fixation of gaze and motor as well as cognitive inactivity. Highly deterministic network behavior may be recognized in skilled and proficient language uses, taken the indispensably co-actuated cerebral specialization in human thought, memories, imagery, and linguistic performance.
Sustained in neural function, feedback has been noted to help verify patterns as well as to uphold their potential for change (Puppel, 1992). It would be the stochastic network mode to add to the readiness as observed by Edward Lee Thorndike, for learning generally. The deterministic mode would partake in exercise of neural command. In networked processing, concern with response as different from signal may arise, whereas “returning of signal” or “signal reiteration” would define feedback as a process. The cerebellum is known to loop back with the neocortex, the function thus can serve for an example.
A cerebellar signal may change or reset an ongoing language sequence. However the cerebellar signal specifically may differ from that to have reached the cerebellum with the sequence onset, it is communication between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex to generate the feedback function. Since command change or reset may even require different signals, biological signal variance does not disqualify the cerebellar role as a feedback capacity. It is the same integrating neural structure to send and receive signal in return to make the constitutive criterion for inner feedback as a closed-loop process.
Cortical management of the cerebellar capability is flexible. The human person may resolve to shape own skill. The notion of the human individual is to invoke personal volition, affect, and intellect, without prescribing on qualities outside educational standards. A natural principle within live humans, feedback reliance can be instinctive.
2.4. Circular reactions in child development
In psychology and physical education, three natural continua for human ontogenetic development have been most acknowledged, the motor, the affective, and the cognitive. The three domains have been found in interaction and rapport to allow the term “psychomotor”, with regard to human locomotion as well as language behavior (Payne and Isaacs, 1987).
The term is not to imply a top-down influence strictly. Motor exercise has been proved beneficial to cognitive ableness, the partial intellectual decline theory to associate aspects of advanced adulthood cognitive slowdown to motor regression (ibidem). For speech and language, the term “psychomotor” emphasizes the necessary priority of the human person, in speaking and writing. The terms of language development rate and order also require comment, as in Crystal, Fletcher, and Garman (1976). Specifically, language acquisition order might show statistic regularities, humans potentially to vary far more in language maturation pace, the order and rate becoming distinct values.
The present projet for language refinement builds on the notion of circular reactions by Jean Piaget. A standard circular reaction would employ introducing changes into a setting, watching the course of alterations effected, and internalizing the cognitively pertinent parameters. Jean Piaget noted circular reactions as infant instinctive behavior. Since this is the human person to make as well as cerebrate on own variables, circular reactions can be considered closed-loop behaviors, the human person to be the actual own focus.
Their natural onset to belong with the sensorimotor stage of human life, the reactions are comprehensibly innate and biologically motivated. Jean Piaget (1992) described the infant at the sensorimotor stage as “thinking by bodily movement”. Up to one, or one and a half months of age, the child would be absorbed with practice of own kinesthetic range. Until around the fourth month, it would be reflex exercise to preoccupy the infant. The child would repeat own earliest, indefinite motor behaviors and watch their course, which has been classed as primary circular reactions.
Secondary circular reactions are primary patterns modified for new circumstances. The sensorimotor repetitiveness to have introduced form analysis, the child learns to combine patterns, and attempts integrating own sensory awareness and motor command in prolonged workout. Secondary schemata help improve movement coordination.
Around twelve months of age, the interplay of sensory, motor, and cognitive powers progresses into tertiary reactions. Trial and error to help develop prediction on events beyond immediate manipulation of objects, the child shows increased interest in the environment, the notion to involve other humans. In object handling, acting through others emerges, and inspires socializing. Objective localization gradually to replace egocentric spatial awareness, the coincidence-anticipation timing ability grows into directional cognizance. The skill later acts in such academic tasks as reading (Payne and Isaacs, 1987).
Circular reactions can be viewed as closed-loop rehearsal, in providing percepts to the very human to have initiated the process. Importantly, circular functions would require a return to part the working input, and return to part the output has made the primary definition of feedback in the present work. Every human person to be an entity, learning altogether yet would include making variables within own neural structures. A view to the question of inner executive controls can help illustrate the matter.
2.5. Case’s executive controls theory
Robbie Case, a psychologist, attempted to incorporate Jean Piaget’s approach in the information processing perspective. He postulated that new executive controls accounted for increased intellectual means in cognitively refining children. The concept of new executive controls was to denote “the current ways of representing the world coupled with the child’s current strategies with specific kinds of problems” (Wortman et al., 1988).
Case evaluated the short-term memory and intellective strengths by the complexity of tasks the children were able to complete. He accepted chunking for a possible enhancement to the short-term scope. The researcher presented children with two tasks for which he assumed the same logical insight, those to be quantity evaluation by number and volume. He found competence in estimating number accompanied by inability to define volume a regular pattern, among six-year-olds. He premised an executive controls discrepancy he named a horizontal décalage (ibidem).
Though the short-term physical capacity is speculated not to change past maturation (Wortman et al., 1988), intellective skill does augment in normally progressing humans. The matter of executive controls can be seen as that of inter-schematic effectiveness, further to correspond with the notion of working memory. Human working memory has been stipulated for either the actual short-term capability, or an inventory to mediate between the short-term and the long-term. The performance has been exposited as potentially labile (Kurcz, 1992).
Intellectual competence is impossible without linguistic advancement. All languages discern between number and mass, countability to precede a grasp of the grammatical article, in acquisition of French as well as English. Generally, estimates on volume or mass need grammatical articles or, also in languages not to operate the articles, demonstratives or determiners. Grammatical gender is another connotation, for French and other languages that assign gender. Therefore, the “horizontal décalage” might be disputed as suggesting a lag where there would not be delay: mastery of grammatical determinateness is not expected of the six-year-old.
Inner grammar structures cannot work without the child’s forming and integrating them. In linking mass or volume and determinateness, the child would be making inputs within own brain connectivity. Volume or mass assessment would embrace broader neural linkage for grammar than telling the number alone. Neural integration would require a return to part own inputs. The “horizontal décalage” would narrate on a normal and standard developmental stage, in which the interschematic coherence is not sufficient.
Ways of representing the world and concurrent strategies with problems are personality factors. Learning may, yet does not have to alter personal attitudes. Learning always to require inner networking, a feedback strategy rather than new controls can be proposed, for promotion of human linguistic and intellective skill. A successful strategy would evolve into a flexible repertoire of linguistic behaviors to advance personal language proficiency for an objective.
2.6. Circular and feedback exercise in language development
Even if intuitively, capability for language use is a goal essentially the same for all humans. Similarities in language acquisition by different persons may result from language structures, as well as natural functioning of human brains. In a projet that minds the feedback-mediated processes of neural networking, initial stages of language learning can be compared with circular reactions.
Most children have an extensive aptness to imitate speech sounds, make analogies in linguistic structures, and to reason inductively. Language development begins with elementary vocalizing or cooing, which is instinctive. The vocal practice can be viewed as corresponding with the sensorimotor coaptation for movement directionality. Children usually become imitated by more grown humans, the earliest “proto-conversations” to make ground for group sense in language comportment, already in the first year of life.
The one-word stage in language development would correlate with primary circular reactions: the child repeats single words or sound clusters to act as syllables or lexemes, the worth of response to be not only in interacting or fulfilling need, but also in validating vocal patterns. Rich utterance interpretation and paraphrasing may embolden progress into the “gimme” or “allgone” units of meaning as by Crystal (1976). The verbalizations merge past, one-word patterns for language behavior, and a parallel between them and secondary circular reactions can be posited.
A language strategy may occur between the ages two or three. Asking Why-questions, when the answer is known, just the ways to ask questions not fully mastered, may exemplify a developing strategy. The language standard always to remain beyond powers for arbitrary manipulation, the repetitiveness may reflect on success with language tertiary circular reactions, initially often “telegraphic” styles to have gained grammar via recurrent use and restructuring of phrases. Humans can vary remarkably in intonation, syntax, vocabulary, as well as interlocutor choices (ibidem).
Environmental closed-loop linguistic activity as in Figure 1 would begin to take shape as early as with language primary circular reactions. Already in young learners, dependence on environment would later diminish, an individual linguistic strategy to motivate the decision to continue with a distorted utterance or even to speak at all, at the scope of a single syllable or even a speech sound. The closed-loop manner of egocentric speech usually assists the progress towards linguistic and intellectual sovereignty.
2.7. The closed-loop behavior of egocentric language
Egocentric speech occurs most often spontaneously, in children aged two to seven years. Children rehearse locution with regard to own behavior, being themselves the intended perceivers of the spoken exercise. Egocentric talk strengthens procedural thinking (Jurkowski, 1986). Playing or resolving on a task, the child may comment on concurrent as well as anticipated events, verbalization to expedite activity planning and modeling.
In spoken form, self-oriented practice can help shape phono-articulatory behaviors. By standard, language egocentric written form would follow and facilitate neuro-motor consecution for the graphemic language representations known as handwriting. Self-improvement would would be in harmonizing the neural potential for exercise, readiness, and effect, personal congruity as in Figure 2 to encourage individual esthetics as affective advantage.
With neural networking, egocentric language integrates declarative and procedural memory paths. The former build inner schemata for thinking, problem solving, and thus cognizance of behavior. The latter connect closely, for neuro-motor adeptness in spoken or written self-expression. In an advanced form, the intrinsic coherence may become inner speech (Pazukhin, 1996/97). The inner rapport might never emerge without the closed-loop behavior of egocentric talking.
Egocentric language may originate in an instinctive need for neural networking to enhance language open-loop sequences. However, language sequencing never is the ultimate goal of maturational exercise. This purpose would be in linguistic flexibility that allows independent study as well as communication in speaking and writing environments. A feedback strategy to afford the versatileness would be a combination of means of context-aware ordering as well as temporal plane, not predictable in terms for a program.
The Progressive “ing” to happen before standard use of the plural or possessive “s”, caution as recommended by Crystal and others (1976) remains advisable in adopting charts or lists about language acquisition order. The linguistic activity to design on egocentric feedback as in Figure 1, much of the early self-oriented practice content as well as purpose is grammar and language written or sound shape.
With study or problem solving, intrapersonal communication continues throughout and well past adolescence. In note making, the author of the written message comes to be the reader (Pazukhin, 1996/97). Individual or cursory character of such messages may make them unintelligible to recipients other than the author. At the core of circular language behaviors and egocentric speech, there would be actually a closed-loop inner interplay on inner and environmental variables, a generally feedback pattern for human learning and function can be presented.
1. The motmot had completely befallen for a piece of fresh stollen.
2. The skylark found nothing to outbid the bit of cosmos with a squid. 🙂
7. The little bat always (cut) the coconut a bit imprecise, cooking the rice to suffice all sojourning mice.
8. The mountain cat usually (sit) on his mat to chat with the standpat spat on habits and repast. 🙂
2.8. The generally feedback pattern in human learning and function
Forming variables and their cognitive exercise are valid behaviors across the lifespan. Especially patterns for problem solving or discard become reinforced with defaults of compound inner determinants, a default to denote neural conciliation without much analysis, for standard contexts. Humans are capable of shaping own inner schemata well beyond maturational stages of life. Everyday existence necessitates management of novel circumstances and information for which pre-formed knowledge cannot be posited. Growth, exception, and change of synaptic significance are part every human life (Vander et al., 1985).
Learning does not take extended neural link uses only, but also path natural delimitating. Neural connectivity expands in initial stages of a cognitive process. Further phases bring connectedness reducing to dimensions within neural economy (Kurcz, 1992). Biological concision pertains with neural tissue, assisting considerable preservation of knowledge without much spatial requirement on the brain. Connectivity broadening as well as restriction would depend on inner feedback.
Formed neural schemata are not changeless. Also for language, even well established paths may recede without systemic actuation, as in language users to lose the capacity in desuetude. In linguistically impoverished environments, the stylistic grasp for hidden language functions as rhetorical questions may never appear. Style modeling in improved or literary contexts remains possible in adults, which emphasizes the importance of education and study. Language dynamics can be observed about monolingual as well as multilingual persons, dynamics to mean change within norm.
Closed-loop, egocentric and environmental externalization to have invited a feedback strategy, human learning may develop into thinking variables of no direct outward form. Advanced neural connectedness most often renders continual note making or verbal rehearsal expendable. Learning via silent reading would motivate elaboration on own inner inputs, the process to continue referring to inner equilibrium for agreeableness. Therefore, lifespan efficacy can be posited for the closed-loop manner of relevant pattern forming, as illustrated in Figure 2.
Cerebellar function already has served an analysis of feedback as a process constitutively to solicit for the same integrating neural structure to send and receive signal in return. The criterion would hold for cognitive inner inputs. Concepts to stratify human personality and thus yield to speculation on “inner cognitive outputs” cannot uphold the properties of a human psyche as a dynamic entity. There being no brain area specialized strictly for learning, these would be neural network relevant nodes to feed back for skill acquisition and use. A reservation needs to be made on the relaxed time frame to accompany ascent in human inner hierarchy.
Experiments with conditioned learning have discerned a major tolerance for reinforcement delay, in complex cognitive processes (Kurcz, 1992). Indeed, neural process time envelope is very strict for single cells, the temporal allowance to become much broader for the brain entire. However, conditioning would be an attempt to expand on a program notion for human learning, in the use of concomitants, elements often not inherent to the object of study. Feedback phenomena not to impose immediacy on intellection either, learning that promotes consciousness of inner variables might favor integration without postponement.
Human genetic endowment might never have come to effect for language, without feedback functions. The nativist language acquisition device needs feedback-mediated neural networking, as well as the closed-loop behavior of egocentric speech. The cognitivist idea for refinement solicits inner reconciliation of neural networks, for the ability to extract from experience. Nature or nurture, all language hypotheses have had to refer to the human brain, for purpose in actual production and comprehension of language. The brain can be viewed as using principally an interplay of closed-loop processes, for learning.
Feedback reliance is innate, taken the early onset of closed-loop behaviors. Primary circular reactions would result from an instinctive need for inner networking. Connectionist laws of learning by Edward Lee Thorndike do compare with natural neural network formation, with only conducive aspects of development to further linguistic progress. The one-word, two-word, and further stages do not necessitate repeating the sensorimotor gestural rehearsal, the same to apply to early tongue movements. Closed-loop processes can be postulated also for advanced learning of no externalization.
Natural networks are biological linkages, for which a singular superior neural structure cannot be purported. Brain language areas do not cover all human skill acquisition, as well as they do not contain all connectivity to account for neuro-motor behavior. This being also common sense that learning a natural language requires a human person, the notion of human personality is to connote individual human will, emotion, and thought, without expectation on personal qualities outside educational standards.
Bruce Derwing’s guideline that natural language is learnable can be supported by education statistics, validity of Thorndike’s laws of learning, and the necessarily species properties of human neural network build as initially instinctual, therefore mandated by DNA. However, not only personality factors would deny reality to natural language as a program. Migration has proved that little children learn languages of their environments, already adolescents can choose and prioritize languages of preference, and individual learning styles may involve extended internalization time, for which “late speakers” yet do not require remedial. The facts indicate that feedback is not just an ancillary programming process.
Human individuation may manifest as early as the second or third year of life, in language and speech strategies. These personal strategies progress into comportment to allow abstracting from experience. The absolute requirement for a program to be that the open-loop sequence is pre-determined from beginning to end, the qualification cannot be maintained for literary as well as everyday language styles and subtleties. Human grammars thus would be more of projects by individual human minds. Project constituents would work dynamically, also in contexts new and open, only feedback strategies might confer versatileness enough to manage.
Feedback strategies do not make an imperative of interpersonal communication. Egocentric language may continue well beyond adolescence. Spoken or written, resource or own linguistic activity may become a literary and personal pleasure not to pledge group engagement. Maturity might even promote egocentric and inner feedback, in the generally feedback pattern for human learning.
A natural process within a live person, feedback cannot be strictly a return to part the output. Personal linguistic command needs own inner inputs, already in earliest stages of language learning. Priority for either skill programming or reliance on feedback must be deliberated, with regard to the human cerebrum as a biological formation to enable personal instinct to self-sustain. Chapter Three also is to examine if human brain universal variables might objectively and physically exist.
 Phonetic: regarding acoustic properties of spoken language.
 Syntax: written or spoken patterns for phrasing language.
 Semantics: standard interpretation of lexical sense.
 A requirement for a thesis is to remain focused on the argument. I yet do not believe in “Manchurian candidate programming” also on grounds of this work. Feedback reliance is a natural principle in every human. “Behavior programs” would be rejected biologically. The Manchurian Candidate by Richard Condon was published in 1959. The Hodgkin and Huxley hypothesis gained publicity about 1963. Post-traumatic perseverations are not programs. They are more of inflexible scarring, which can be retrained only sometimes.
 Perfection: attainment of proficiency. Psycholinguistics does not impose criteria as “ideal” or “perfect” on speech and language, not denying the human potential for excellence.
 Children can construe structures never received. Without language in the environment, a child might never learn speech and writing, however.
 DNA programs: species-specific biological instruction. The phrase is not to imply ancestry in language skill. Also owing to migration, it has been widely known that language skill cannot be inherited, and every person needs to work for own ability.
 Neoconnectionist: an approach to continue with connectionist studies, approving of neural network models for human learning. I preserve a selective approach, as scientific guidance happens to change.
 Principium: guiding principle. Please compare the Latin principium, commencement. The thesis builds on what is known already, as elicitation or other behaviorist methods would interfere the language reality to be studied.
 Apoptosis: natural cell death. Cells receive signals from other cells to continue with function or cease. Cancer happens to be called “cell immortality”.
 Language exposure: access to, and use of linguistic material of levels also higher than learner advancement.
 Please compare the description of relevant pattern forming, 1.6., in Chapter One.
 Affect: overall emotional condition, state, or predilection of a person. Laboratory research indicates that neurons biochemically can “label” paths for the emotional component.
 Neurochemical specificity would depend on binding site parameters for permeableness. Affinity would depend on attraction between the membrane and the ligand. Neurophysiologically, the higher the specificity, the fewer are the binding options (Vander et al., 1985). Not only for language, human nervous systems are person-defined, that is, within the boundaries of a human individual, and characteristic to the person. Chemically assisted learning has proved a failure so far, most probably owing to all these factors together. Feel welcome to chapter 4.
 Definiens: from Latin, that to define, a strict definition.
 Homeostatic feedforward: anticipatory neural processing about actual or potential environmental variables, moderated by the cerebral cortex. Homeostatic feedforward is part learned (chapter 1.8.), yet obviously, below a temperature threshold even an ice swimmer would become frozen, however ice swimmers exceed the statistic for thermoregulation.
 Preattentive processing: initial assessment of an object before directing focus or ignoring the occurrence. The evaluation needs feedback with the cortex.
 Habituation: ignoring occurrences we do not consider pertinent to a scope of features or behavior. Walking in a city for example, we do not have to focus on people who pass by, we yet do not walk into them. Preattentive processing may direct our regard to someone similar to our acquaintance or friend. The process will be habituated, if we realize the person is a stranger.
 Inter-schematic concordance: conformity in activation between neural schemata. Neural patterns work also in thinking, in which the brain can be very selective. A thought process may actuate a network or, selectively, just a few relevant schemata within a network. Therefore, the general term of inter-schematic function.
 Enteric nervous system: neural network in the wall of the intestinal tract (Vander et al., 1985). We may decide to come up to a fruit stand, buy fruit, and eat. The network to assist digestion will not be uniform with that to have mediated our seeing nutrition.
 Praxic, procedural: belonging with praxis, actual application, practice, or use, as in driving own automobile, yet without a car mechanic education.
 Noesis:mind’s involvement in perception and awareness of perception result.
 Procedural convergence: integration of patterns for successful performance, completion of activity. Own success with behavior matters most. With language as well as other pursuits, praise or criticism might be less important than own assessment.
 For example, finding own old photo camera, the person might try to repeat the manual routines he or she associates with operating the object, rather than look for written instruction.
 Symbolic: allowing to associate denotation, as for an architect to plan a house. Denotation: note or token for a particular, specific meaning.
 Declarative scope: allowing to tell what should be done, as for a doctor to prescribe vitamins, without administering or providing them.
 Exact sciences do not exclude creativity, as in search for new cures or technologies. Further, individual creativity derives from personal, also theory knowledge.
 Intrapersonal: what we can perceive with insight into ourselves, introspectively. Please compare the Latin intra, on the inside, within, and personalis, of a person, personaliter, personally.
 Signal: inherent impulse of communicative value. Signal values also can be part learned.
 Constitutive: pertaining with a structure as part the build.
 The cerebellum does not initiate speech, however, it is never “just the brain talking”, either. Speech and language require the human person.
 Continuum: continued development or succession. For example, we do not abandon walking, though we acquired it as toddlers; we continue with our grammars, having developed them since childhood.
 Ontogenetic: of individual lifespan. Please compare phylogenetic, evolved in the species.
 Projet [prozshei]: a general delineation.
 Circular: cyclic, to return to the beginning for conclusion.
 Sensorimotor stage: the earliest stage in human development, when the infant mostly practices own senses and bodily movement.
 The child learns to show he or she needs assistance.
 Egocentric spatial awareness: reference to oneself, for existence of other people or things. Objective localization: memory as well as speculation on whereabouts independent of own position, which assists object permanence.
 Coincidence-anticipation timing: for example, the child’s ability to catch a rolling ball, with progress to help play games as tennis, the ball coming from various directions.
 For reading, coincidence anticipation develops into predictive sequencing on likely word shapes. For example, a print error might bring a sequence as Tpolemy. We may look up Ptolemy in an encyclopedia, even if we do not know ancient history.
 Chunking: associating into sequences or sets.
 Décalage: French, discrepancy.
 In psychology, the “magical number” theories have given the short-term memory the capacity of “seven plus-minus two”, or of four chunks only, under strict conditions. Please compare Cowan N., The magical number 4. Feel welcome to see my Travelers in Grammar to propose four variables for the grammatical Aspect: travelingrammar.com.
 The term concurrent strategies is to reflect on pragmatics. Strategies change, and their application depends on particular circumstances.
 Jean Piaget regarded socialization, interpreting egocentric speech, which he compared with egotism or even narcissism. Psycholinguistically, egocentric speech is a behavior of self-centered practice. Please compare the Latin ego, I, me, and centralis, central. The activity is not anti-social. It is egocentric, as it is not intended to involve the environment, in exercise of own linguistic ability.
 As opening a door with a key in a bunch.
 Rhetorical question: a question actually to function as the affirmative or the negative, to which no answer is expected.
 Externalize: to make externally perceivable, as to eyesight or hearing.
 Psychoanalytic theories divide the human being into an ego, super ego, and subconscious id (as of Latin id est, that-is-structure). Psychoanalysts purport interpretation to cryptic “outputs” the subconscious would make for the ego. The theories have received much criticism. I have psychoanalysis for an artless joke. Linguistics recognizes competence, knowledge of language, and performance, ability to put the knowledge to work.
 Reinforcement: in operant conditioning, use of the unconditioned stimulus along with the conditioned stimulus.
 Concomitant: a factor to occur at the same time as the stimulus, as a bell ring and a rise in room temperature, for example.
 The nature versus nurture debate, not as prominent nowadays, concerned the origin of human intellection as either a DNA or training effect. To a time, the debate allowed behaviorist methods for “nurture”, which is not as acceptable at the present. I do not consider behaviorism capable of language coaching. Further, non-verbal and coercive means belong with offense strictly.