We may associate philology with a study of poetry and other literary forms. However, philology embraces also linguistics, and linguistic considerations have progressed into the neural reality of language. Naturally, dissecting tissue in order to analyze language would be absurd. Facts of neurophysiology yet may add valuable insight into psychology and language.

Science does not have to mean a mechanistic or laboratory-oriented perspective. Whereas human nervous systems can be viewed as capable of information processing — humans have developed scientific and logical skills — the thesis supports the notion of a language faculty rather than isolated brain areas or devices, and holds human awareness along with personality for indispensable.

Psycholinguistics has voluntariness for an absolute requirement in language studies, as well as experiments: coercion cannot bring any light onto the nature of language. The thesis did not and will not need any experiments. It avails of legal print resources, all acknowledged in the bibliography. Human neurophysiology bases on  presentation by Vander and others, as of use also in medical or healthcare curricula. Since approaches change, in language as in other human intellectual pursuits, it is only the quoted extent of the print resources the thesis has for pertinent.

Human nervous systems have been evidenced to use inner, biological feedback already at the level of the single cell. In unimpeded humans, the inner requirement for natural feedback processes approximates a drive, feedback interference potentially to result in drive-like or driven behaviors, particularly in humans of altered cognitive scopes. A drive may be defined as a basic and instinctive need, an inner urge to stimulate response, incite, or repress action (the Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989), as well as a strong motivating tendency or instinct related to self-preservation (the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition, 2006, 2000).

The thesis focuses on the biological phenomenon already at the cellular level, examines the essence and effect of feedback processes within the human nervous system, and attempts to analyze their importance to human psychology as well as language learning, use, and deficit. The feedback performance as in the thesis concerns closed-loop factors. It does not refer to evaluative or opinion-related behavior that everyday language may connote. The notion of a drive does not involve any sex-oriented function. The thesis regards human nerve, muscle, and cognitive structures with strictly linguistic relevance, to pay no attention to political association as well. Authors are quoted owing to the meaning in their works, not national or other affinity.

Professor Stanisław Puppel of Adam Mickiewicz University generally mentioned the topic in class, in 1993, I began writing in 1999, and defended The role of feedback in language processing in the year 2000, earning my Master of Arts degree in philology, specialization American English and psycholinguistics. Mr. Puppel was the supervising professor. The print is my authorial presentation.

The text is free for fair use, that is, criticism, comment, teaching, scholarship, and research, provided that reference to the author is retained. I am open to comments or questions at the e-mail address enclosed.

Teresa Pelka

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