Human brains may process sensory inputs. Cognitive functions yet involve own thought processes, as well as rejection of data. The human brain to be a structure to integrate and regulate primarily the inner environment, intrinsic as well as extrinsic variables are continually subject to verification, inhibition, and also denial. Part these processes remain outside consciousness, selectivity to add to human phylogenetic advantage (Vander et al., 1985). The psychiatrist Antoni Kępiński (1972) coined the term of a distorted “information metabolism”, to link defects in attainment of the above objectives and schizophrenia.
Of the many definitions of feedback, those of output return, effect reversal, or acoustic interference have been widely used, with regard to mechanical devices. Psychological meaning to be that of evaluative behavior, feedback has become associated with guidance or viewpoints. Neurology began applying the term of information processing to human bodily structures in the XX century.
The notion of feedback has been adopted for cybernetics, the Greek kybernan to denote steering or governing. Artificial intelligence remains a secondary application, capable of patterning after human insight only to an extent. Hodgkin-Huxley mathematical model having lost prominence for life sciences, the cellular processes as discovered by the researchers remain a fact, feedback to be a closed-loop capability over open-loop sequences.
For the conclusions with footnotes, go to Conclusions page
Psycholinguistics gained prominence in 1960s, opposing behaviorism (Puppel, 1996). The framework for the present quest, the discipline has been defined as a study of the relationships between linguistic behavior and psychological processes, including language acquisition (New Oxford Dictionary of English, 1998). Encyklopedia Językoznawstwa Ogólnego would enclose language teaching and remedial with the field (1993). The study of psychological reality of language, as recognized also by the Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language (1989), does not abstract from language neural matter.
Human nervous systems can be viewed as natural information management structures. The tenets of option, information pool, program, feedback, and signal use are met within the human internal structuring by standard. Natural language is indispensable for human logical functioning, comprehension and production to depend on neural processes. Feedback reliance is a natural principle for live human systems.
Feedback phenomena are intrinsic to single neurons as well as systemic dynamics, of the central and autonomic co-operating for situational and individual stereotypes, or the cortical and subcortical negotiation for the spoken or written act. Regard to feedback is not to encourage pursuits for a uniform neural model for language, human speech and language to be a natural faculty by a human person.
Individual, personality factors emerge already at the level of language cerebral patterns. The patterns and their networks are not innate or inborn structures, but actual neural connections every person needs to form on his or her own. Consequently, there is no universal neural format for language, and no such model can become of function for personal linguistic strategies.
Strategy language styling and structuring depends on personal free will. The generative and spontaneous capability uses open-loop consecutions for language that can compare with programs, yet need to be formed in feedback-mediated exercise of goal-oriented behavior. The laws of learning by Edward Lee Thorndike are consistent with natural neural networking, in which personal congruity is an inherent component.
Human earliest vocal behavior is innate. As instinctively, humans begin own inner networking, in the egocentric feedback of circular reactions. Throughout lifespan, an essentially closed-loop manner can be observed about human learning. Human persons to be dynamic entities rather than layers or scopes of actuation, cognitive processes would require use of own inner input. Timing would be indispensably intrinsic for all intellectual performance, human working memory possibly to partake in inner feedback. Stimulation, as a unidirectional influence, would be incapable of feedback functions.
Behaviorist approaches can be doubted also on grounds of the inner heterarchy carry-over of endophasia. For human language skill overall, feedback as sustained in neural pattern build would allow verification as well as change in language existent neural compass, and provide for the neuro-motor-articulatory feedforward. All natural languages permanence is relative, to include phonology along syntax and semantics, in the notion of a language standard.
“Mind modularity”, “language universals”, or “notional matrices” cannot account for the language pool phenomena of the Warrens experiment. It would be feedback-mediated attainment of language information thresholds to explain the results: the masked component concealed actual phonemes. Not only on these grounds, feedback reliance can be considered a neuro-behavioral priority for natural language. Open-loop sequences or routines would be formed to encourage neural economy and thus make more allowance for feedback and related responsiveness, as proved by Ladefoged. Grammars would be projects by individual minds flexibly to apply within personal linguistic strategies.
Feedback intrinsicality becomes a sound conclusion with regard to permanent hindrance, as well. Re-orienting would follow natural feedback compensation in persons of inborn and acquired sensory impediment. Remedial in mental language processing always solicits personal awareness and language egocentric feedback. Behavior validity may never become negotiated in the learning deficient, without autonomous concordance. The extreme of the “fragmented thought” of schizophrenia implies defects in intrinsic timing to express in phonologically driven discourse.
These are not only human cognition and language to need natural inner feedback. Human DNA depends on cellular feedback for active protein, in the course of the human endeavor to comprehend own structure, this being already Lamarck to note on organism adaptation (The New Oxford Dictionary of English, 1998). Human endurance under feedback impoverishment has been reported lower than for fasting, and of sensory expression (Lindsay and Norman, 1991). Parallel-distributed information processing by human brains holds in standard as well as non-standard contexts, yet impediment, obstruction, or deficit cannot prescribe on norm. Therefore, the role of feedback in language processing can be posited to approximate a drive.
Psychologically, a drive is an inner urge to stimulate response, incite or repress action, as well as a basic and instinctive need (Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989). The instinctual nature of feedback reliance would be strongest in neural, inner extents, interference or limitation potentially to induce biological search for variables. In environmental scopes, dependence on feedback would lessen with language maturation and personal independence.
Not connoted with stress or fear in civilized circumstances, speech and language always remain a basic human need, and as such relate to self-sustainment. Natural feedback in language thus would have the role of an initiating, mediating, and modeling factor. This would be the self-preservation instinct to promote individual flexibility and competence for progress and advancement.
The structure, In the course of the human endeavor to comprehend own structure, this being already Lamarck to note …, was marked as an error, at my defense.
I preserve the original for fairness, and to explain that time also has had linear representations. Compare the world history timeline, illustration James Logan AP World History Website — https://sites.google.com/a/nhusd.k12.ca.us/apworld/.
Viewing developments as on a line, I think I do not have to mark antecedence. Further, I do not consider myself participant in the development (Lamarck’s study), or imagine some generally course or current of time everyone would be part in, and that I believe also was a factor to encourage the temporal reference.
Feel welcome to my grammar course,
Conscious human experience becomes possible with the working of a structure known as the human mind. Though not defined universally, it would be the mind to integrate thinking as well as feeling, and build cognizance. For all known circumstances, the neural reality of the brain is indispensable for the mind structure work. However, neurophysiology can offer a limited perception only on the relationship between brain functioning and consciousness (Vander et al., 1985).
Injury or impairment cannot measure unimpeded language command. The reservation to hold for all the subsequent discourse, feedback impoverishment shall be presented along with related language deficiency, to encourage understanding for the potential role of feedback in individual cognizance. Psycholinguistics is a field of possible application in language therapy as well (Encyklopedia Językoznawstwa Ogólnego, 1993).
For the work with footnotes, visit Chapter 4 page.
4.1. Feedback deficiency and language motor component
Impediment to the cerebellar function may result in ataxic dysarthria (Styczek, 1983), which cleaves the fine movement of the speech act into phono-articulatory segments. The accentuated syllabic sequences would show little or no differentiation for syntactic properties of predicates, complements, or structure heads. The person is aware of own malfunction, yet may be neurally handicapped in learning new motor patterns (Vander et al., 1985).
Essential in management of speech and language open-loop aspects, the cerebellum cannot work without feedback with the cerebral cortex. Brainstem is part the linkage. The paths are part uncrossed and allow a degree of compensation, when corticospinal control is hampered (ibidem). Brainstem impairment may cause disorders to speech segmentation as well as visual language processing, also when cerebellar function is preserved. Injury can induce prolonged or permanent loss of consciousness known as coma, which may resist remedial.
Corticospinal tracts complement brainstem connectivity in postural management, yet the compensation is never complete (Vander et al., 1985). The connections help the fine movement of the fingers and hands, crossing for opposite sides of the body in the medulla oblongata. Corticospinal damage slows, weakens, and may even arrest motion, as in the grip of the hand. Respiratory spasticity would increase articulatory effort, or even make speech impossible.
With impediment, corticobulbar pathways might become divisive, in control of the muscles of the eyes, face, tongue, and throat. For undisturbed speech and language, the connectivity can be classed with corticospinal or pyramidal communication. Spastic dysarthria can make speech unintelligible. The person is aware of impediment, corrective exercise yet might be difficult, owing to corticospinal activity naturally remaining part outside interoception. Corticospinal as well as corticobulbar paths gain feedback from local motor neurons and interneurons, which is of potential assistance in therapy.
Human neural matter for language never relies on feedback-independent effect. Taking tongue innervation for an example, the hypoglossal nerve is efferent, yet it arises in the medulla oblongata, a major neural coordination structure of the brainstem. The glossopharyngeal, trigeminal, and facial nerves have both motor and sensory fibers, and thus make feedback connections. Distortions to tongue innervation may bring dyspraxias or apraxias.
4.2. Feedback functions and language mental processing
Human brains have strong compensating powers and not every type of injury results in permanent damage to intellective abilities. This is intrinsic feedback to inform the brain about loss, and these may be feedback faculties to cancel the consequent impediment. Restoration of a scope of mind may happen spontaneously, without therapist assistance (Wortman et al., 1988).
Language engages both brain hemispheres. The corpus callosum is an important part in the brain inner feedback, for linguistic performance as well as competence. Discord in conveyance can evoke epileptic seizures and temporary or persistent language difficulty. Severance impedes acoustic and visual stimuli comprehension. With disjoined brainwork, numbers, letters, or short words might be recognized with hemispheric exposure. Syntactic structures would require that the linguistically dominant hemisphere is co-activated. Humans differ in hemisphere linguistic specialization, the left hemisphere statistically to prevail (Akmajian et al., 1984).
Anomia may ensue from a lesion to the dominant angular gyrus (ibidem). The person may have difficulty in finding words or choosing object names, when facing a choice. Repetition skills may remain standard. An impact in early years of life may induce function transfer to the other hemisphere, which applies to brain language capabilities overall. The transfer would take place without conscious control. Angular gyri have been described for their eminence in sensory signal synchronization and operating on compound parameters (Puppel, 1992).
Conduction dysphasia may follow a tempoparietal failure. The tissue acts in synthesis of word meaning and form (Akmajian et al., 1984). Spoken or written discourse may retain fluency, yet become verbose and asyntactic. Language reproduction may become grossly discomposed. Neurological research ascribes the disorder to a diminished capacity by the Broca and Wernicke areas to communicate. Conduction impediments may withdraw, to belong with dysphasias as disturbances in partially sustained language command. Dysphasias are associated with better prospects for recovery, aphasias to connote absent linguistic abilities (Styczek, 1983). Feral children stay aphasic, without proper care.
Cognizance on the distortion may be limited, in persons affected by conduction impediments. Attention to egocentric analysis, and thus the intracerebral ability to feed back, can be of therapeutic importance. A patient described as a motor-kinesthetic aphasic improved after self-monitoring exercise (Tłokiński, 1982). A recording of his utterances was made, and the patient became aware of his speech sound substitutions, after listening to the tape. Previous correction by therapist had been unsuccessful. Efficiency of glottodidactics, the practice to narrow the focus to articulation solely, continues to be questioned for unimpeded persons as well (ibidem).
In retrograde amnesia, memory of the events around the time of the incident may be lost or even never formed. Previous knowledge may be re-accessed with recovery (Wortman et al., 1988). Trauma circumstances would have no function in brain inner feedback reestablishment for pre-traumatic experience, or later progress. Concerning neural paths damaged or never formed, exact reconstruction cannot be purported, with hypnotic therapies as well. Anterograde amnesia is a difficulty in neural path and schemata forming. The deficit pertains with working memory (ibidem). Trauma awareness is usually limited or absent, in amnesic persons. Physical as well as chemical impact on brain tissue can be diagnosed with MRI techniques. Egocentric analysis to embrace language skill may help cognizance and recovery.
4.3. Eyesight impediment and feedback-mediated compensation
In eyesight deficiency, natural compensation confers increased importance to auditory, tactile, kinesthetic, and proprioceptive modalities. Hearing and touch attain special prominence for verbal activity and learning. Synthetic and analytic functions of touch to correspond with passive and active fashions of palpation (Sękowska, 1985), it would be analytic touch to assist reading or writing in Braille, when of preference to voice-mediated technologies. Tactile and auditory variables would participate in brain spatial schemata, linguistic activity to encourage human natural mapping in transcending the boundaries of direct physical surroundings, as through study and literature.
Acoustic echo can serve environment active exploration. An eyesight-impeded person may use a walking stick or another source of interpretable resonance. The “hypothetical obstacle indicator” by Dolański (in Sękowska, 1985) can support a view to human neural networking as related to personality factors. Mr. Dolański suffered from an acquired eyesight deficit. He reported increased facial sensitivity in circumstances he thought likely to bring unexpected obstacles. He emphasized his feeling protective about his face, describing the pattern of sensory reaction.
The kinesthetic modality may partake in cognizance of time and walking distances, with conscious exercise. Proprioception can help organize the impeded person’s environment, projecting on his or her body orientation and physical space. The skills would be useful individually, there being no universal walking paces or sensory aptness (ibidem). Visual limitation comes with immediate awareness of the sensory deficit. Trauma management always needs to be individual as well as cognizant, however.
4.4. Hearing impediment and compensation
Auditory difficulty induces compensation with focus to visual and tactile variables. Touch may become the essential modality for articulatory patterns (Styczek, 1983), lip reading to help comprehend spoken discourse. In lesser extent, eyesight and tongue tactile variables help phono-articulatory behavior also in unimpeded humans. Importantly, spontaneous adjustment cannot suffice for language, and awareness of hearing deficit may depend on gradual or instant occurrence, as well as degree.
Human syntactic abilities should not be discerned in terms of written language solely (Crystal et al., 1976), and auditory deficiency has been noted to hamper syntax. However, natural language acquisition should stay of reference for all children, with reservation on individual learning styles: language structures to appear erroneous may belong with a linguistic strategy developmental stage, in impeded as well as unimpeded persons. Function words, as the articles or prepositions, may require special focus by the hearing deficient student, natural rather than telegraphic speech to be recommendable for entire remedial practice (ibidem). Capacity for intonation exercise will depend on the degree of hearing deficiency.
Whether language deficit would be perceived for literally delay, where the child’s language is at the level of his or her juniors, or pertain with sets of language forms, language deviance (in Crystal et al., 1976) would be a phrasing of hindered adequacy, in comparison with that of language disadvantage. The concept of an “ideal speaker” against which to measure the stipulated “deviance” cannot befit a generative perspective not to endorse universality of thought processes.
Hearing is essential in development of egocentric speech. Written egocentric language may help the inner linguistic faculty emerge, whether a hearing aid or auditory prosthesis would be of resolve. Dictionary phonetic script or respelling may enable linguistic elaboration of also literary qualities. Cognitive mapping might not require assistance, in hearing-impeded persons.
4.5. Learning difficulty and feedback functions
Researchers have associated learning difficulty with central nervous system shortcomings, there yet has been much discord on neurological assessment (Bryan and Bryan, 1982). Social grounds have been termed of circumstance, too. Children may become slower in reactions, deficient in attention spans, or even inhibited in cortical activity, owing to abuse, neglect, or stress solely. Language skills are at the core of scholarly evaluation worldwide.
To focus on particulars constitutive in learning, Hallahan and Reeve named failure in verbal rehearsal or grouping of information, in school delay (ibidem). Curricula continue to emphasize egocentric language, note making and skill practice to be prerequisite for academic achievement. Physical education to belong with most courses of study, learning-deficient children have been found of discomfort with sports activity as well. This inspired attempts at physical exercise to actify a stipulated kinesthetic instrumentality in cognitive progress. The “catch-up” was reported of small or even no assistance to intellection, especially in children of severe delays (Payne and Isaacs, 1987).
Pharmacological remedial became rejected by parents and students, as resulting in state-dependent learning (Bryan and Bryan, 1982). In the feedback perspective, altered chemoaffinity would have interfered with the natural inner feedback, in neural link build and lifework. The psychological consequence of investing motivation in medical and thus extrinsic factors also proved disadvantageous.
Hallahan, Kneedler, and Lloyd (ibidem) reported success with a task to monitor own attention:
“To do this, children wore wrist counters, and upon hearing unpredictable signals they were supposed to ask themselves whether they were attending to the task. If they felt that they were, they could press the wrist counter and proceed with the business at hand. If they felt that they were not, they could not go on with the lesson. This simple procedure was found to be quite effective in increasing the child’s time on task” (Bryan and Bryan, 1982).
The task strengthened egocentric feedback. Learning-deficient students usually are aware of own demerit, especially in connection with school and peer environments. The self-consciousness would not motivate to work, and techniques to drive focus to other children’s accomplishment or defeat most frequently were failures (ibidem). Learner autonomy was probably the motive for the three-and-a-half-year-old in Crystal and others (1976), who favored role-playing to forced-alternative elicitation. Linguistic advancement, as well as remedial, have not been found to require separate techniques for boys and girls.
Human information metabolism: schizophrenia
Neurological research has redefined schizophrenia as a somatoform disorder, neuro-imaging to have detected differentiative biological structuring of altered function, in patient brains (Vander et al., 1985). Schizophasia was recognized as a speech-language deficit by Irena Styczek (1983). Antoni Kępiński, a psychiatrist, perceived the illness as related to human information processing (1972).
Many habitual and routine behaviors become goals for conscious decision making, in a schizophrenic patient. Cognitive mapping is handicapped, along with ability to integrate sensory modalities. Affected persons may report hallucination, as well as have difficulty sustaining focus. Brain evoked latency potentials in EEG testing have been described as only possibly indicative (Wojtaszek, 1993). Volunteer intoxication, compared with patient results, can confirm the somatoform character of the disorder (Vander et al., 1985).
Undisturbed cognitive functions involve own thought processes, as well as rejection of data. The human brain is a structure to integrate and regulate primarily the inner environment. Intrinsic as well as extrinsic variables are continually subject to verification, sustainment, inhibition, or denial. Part these processes remain outside consciousness (Vander et al., 1985). Antoni Kępiński (1972) coined the term of a distorted “information metabolism”, to link defects in the inner management and schizophrenia.
Schizophasic speech would allow articulatory proximity and phonological semblance to direct the mostly monologuist and spoken language activity. Impediment to semantic and syntactic aspects of language may manifest in extensive use of neologisms (Kępiński, 1972). Awareness of the disorder may vary. Severely affected persons would show little capacity for linguistic self-correction (Styczek, 1983).
Parallel and correlate information analysis holds for human brains regardless of age, and in cases of distortion as well. Individual integrity and cognizance emphasize inner and egocentric feedback along with intrinsic timing. It is inner feedback to allow consciousness of disturbance, and feedback is indispensable for brain reorganized function. Management of natural, intrinsic feedback information thus can be stated fundamental to human mindwork.
The importance of inner feedback becomes most marked with distortions as conduction or amnesic impediment in mental language processing. It is upon egocentric analysis that the person may recognize a shortcoming and try to reconstitute own ability, therapist intervention potentially to remain inoperative otherwise. In comparison, damage to language motor aspects would become noticed almost reflexly, with mental processing preserved.
Sensory hindrance, whether acquired or inborn, induces natural compensation within modality pool. Importantly, inner feedback allows continued use of the gnostic parameters to have belonged with the deficient sense. Persons of acquired visual impediment remain able to use visual imagery, and hearing loss does not have to dismiss verbal reference to auditory experience. However, human inner connectedness would not support concepts of “sensory modality translation” (in Sękowska, 1985). Extra-liminal perception of no physical component cannot be postulated, for humans altogether. These would be cognitive-perceptual correlates rather than “sensory translation” to work for speech and language, in impeded persons as well.
Importance of inner feedback and intrinsic timing also would show in the ailment known as schizophrenia. The altered neural performance might not result from distribution solely, as the illness happens to remit (Kępiński, 1972), and healthy individuals may develop schizophrenia-like variables under controlled intoxication. Prognoses for recovery vary among researchers (Laing, 1999), the emphasis to remain on proper diagnostics and therapy. Language egocentric feedback conscious exercise might be of help.
For remedial, linguistic strategies can apply best in alleviating language difficulty, as noted by Crystal and others (1976). A natural principle of innate manifestation, feedback exercise can assist in monitoring own language production, by language learners as well as persons of impediment. Environmental feedback of role-playing, or egocentric training in self-assessment, can be regular activities in the language classroom and a therapy lounge. Comparison of impediment and foreign study (Crystal et al., 1976) yet never should bring projection of language disadvantage on mainstream language learners.
Not only in language learning would there be a psychological continuum. Human language proficiency needs the notion of the human person as well. To discuss the role of feedback in a mature language faculty, the human brain yet shall remain of reference, as “neither linguistic competence nor linguistic performance are mere abstract entities but are mediated by the physical structure of the human brain” (Puppel, 1992). Program and feedback to be compared for neuro-behavioral priority in language, universalist tendencies in linguistics can be analyzed with concern to natural language permanence, and thus standards. Linguistic behavior to require physical parameters of speech and writing, human sensory processing opens the consideration of the role of feedback in language use.
For the thesis with footnotes, go to Chapter 3 page
- Sensory signal processing by the human brain
The brain works on sensory signals in a parallel and distributed manner. Sense organs convert impulses into graded and action potentials to be sent to input consolidating areas in the brain. The biological code the brain operates during processing differs materially from the input signal with which it corresponds. Integrating inputs, the brain does not translate the processing code back into the stimulus quality, compound brain codes to account for perception (Vander et al., 1985).
The difference between sensory impulses and brain transmission codes compares with that between sensory alterations and perception. Afferent impulses of no conscious correlate most often become discarded, the term perception to apply to conscious recognition from neural input. Signal transfer in the brain is inseparable from signal interpretation, relayed processing to mean signal split into aspects communicable to specific neural sets (ibidem).
For visual processing, lateral geniculate nuclei may exemplify relay centers to assist focus, supporting the thalamic function. Inputs from retinal distinctive sites reach specialized brain destinations simultaneously. Frontal lobes integrate information on object identity to have arrived via the temporal tissues; object spatial component has inputs from the occipital and parietal areas. Distributed processing requires precise synchronization for input reassembly.
The lateral nuclei, besides engagement in signal transmission, contribute to brainstem and cerebellar patterns for wakefulness or locomotion, help manage eye and head coordination, fixation of gaze, and pupil constriction. Pupillary response can be an indicator for processing workload (Zimmer, 1993). Of the cortical structures to synchronize signals, the angular gyri neighbor on brain visual, auditory, as well as tactile specialized locales. The gyri are notable in object identification and naming (Puppel, 1992). Relayed processing provides for a degree of separation between cognitive functions and motor behavior. All sensory modalities are processed in parallel-distributed manner. Inclusive of language, human feedback connectivity for sensory signal processing can be presented as in Figure 5.
Figure 5. A general model for feedback connectivity in sensory signal processing, inclusive of language (compare Vander et al., 1985).
The parallel-distributed processing requires multiple feedback pathways, which favors efferent capacities to accompany afferent sites. Active palpation coalesces with tactile receptiveness, for example. Hearing is unique in its use of efferent pathways of no learned component. The paths project from the brainstem to the cochlea and end on both the hair cells and afferent terminals. The function of these paths is not certain. Animals surgically deprived of them were impeded in discriminating audio frequencies, as well as signal sound from noise. Ancillary mechanisms for isolating signal from background might work also in humans (Vander et al., 1985).
Eyesight needs ontogenetically acquired re-afference. The learned acuity and focus emerge in feedback with the vestibular system, along with neural schemata for bodily movement and balance. All sensory modalities have the potential to mobilize overall responses, parallel-distributed processing to be of possible consequence to information processing in the brain entire. However, intrapersonally evolved cognizance is decisive to human perception, in standard circumstances.
Research in neurophysiology was used to attempt a learning-capable machine, named the perceptron. The machine was a parallel-operation device (Puppel, 1996). Construction of artificial consciousness may remain impracticable, owing to natural intricacies in personality factors. Intrinsicality of feedback promotes the factors also for sensory processing, as there is no feedback-governing brain locale, and focus naturally belongs with individual interest and choice.
- Managing multiple inputs: pathway length and efficiency
Biological processing of information brings forward the matter of signal priority, with respect to neural pathway length and speed of transfer. Parietal inner and outer regions may attract focus, also owing to high limbic connectivity. The outer areas neighbor on primary sensory cortices directly. The inner work on compound modality data, enhancing not only pattern identification, but also permanence. This is the integrative work of the inner parietal lobes to invite a relatively constant sense for verticality, despite changes in head position. Inner parietal linkage with the limbic system can result in highly processed signals of emotional preeminence (Vander et al, 1984).
Limbic paths loop with the thalamus and the amygdalae, and make neural “shortcuts” capable of overriding the regulative powers by the frontal lobes. Though there is no “emotional system” in the brain, the paths can alter homeostasis, decision making, memory, and lexical access (ibidem). The phenomenon of “emotional hijacking” would suggest an ability by the brain to establish “express” connections in response to psychological or physical pressure (in Goleman, 1997). The eventuating limitation in linguistic aptness denies terms of advantage, however.
Quillian’s experiments on semantic processing would imply pathway length for directly proportional to the time of signal interpretation (Kurcz, 1992). Nonetheless, his network models of memory assumed varied “weight” for particular neural nodes. In the light, the “rule of force” as described in Puppel (1992) would require comment. The impact of path priority might place individual behavior outside the boundaries of norm as drawn by statistics. It yet would not waive individual selectiveness as constituent in neural path build generally. Potential for behavior universality has inspired disputes among psychologists and physicians (Goleman, 1997).
- The feedback-reliant nature of the speech act
Already the preliminary stage of motor program selection requires preparatory effort of the feedback faculties. Exact loci of the command neurons for particular neuro-motor sequences in language production have never been, and further may remain undiscerned. Neurophysiologically and pragmatically, the signals can be noted to accord the afferent information on the status of the articulators (Vander et al., 1985; Puppel, 1992). A neuro-motor sequence would be chosen and implemented upon integration of the command and afferent variables.
These would be multineuronal pathways, cerebral and corticospinal, to communicate the neocortex with articulator muscles. Corticospinal axons end directly on the alpha and gamma motor neurons, as well as interneurons (Puppel, 1988). Also presynaptically, multineuronal paths can branch on afferent neurons and influence the ascending information, which increases focus on the concurrent act (Vander et al., 1985). By standard, multineuronal pathways loop the brainstem, the basal ganglia, the cerebellum, and the cortex (ibidem).
The fine motor mastery for the speech segment is effected in a part open-loop fashion, as can be observed in slips of tongue. Undistorted, segmental restriction on neural programming adds to speaker swiftness, accuracy, and flexibility (Puppel, 1992). Speech segments follow articulatory plans, managed neocortically via the cerebellum. Reliant on the cerebral cortex logical functioning, speech plans can direct multineuronal feedback pathways to negotiate inefficient sequence real-time modifying or replacement. Natural circumstances and linguistic skill allow flawless language.
Change of speaker feedback control in experiments by Ladefoged (in Puppel, 1988) proved distortive to the realization phase. Auditory feedback deficiency induced divergence in pitch levels, or in vowel lengths and qualities. Inhibited tactile, kinesthetic, or proprioceptive feedback slowed articulatory movement and provoked compensatory muscle effort. Exophasia is not the sole brain function for language.
The terminus of articulatory development via egocentric speech, inner speech has been described as proceeding considerably faster than speech acts (Jurkowski, 1986; Pazukhin, 1996/97). Stipulated to found on reduced neural conveyance, the word sense to be “compact” rather than “limited” (Pazukhin, 1996/97), endophasia is not opposed to exophasia. Most often incomprehensible to persons other than the speakers, it yet would build on the neural linkage for audible speech. Human language skill gains finesse in adulthood and may continue to improve in advanced age.
Autoreflection on endophasia (ibidem) reports speech organ trace activity to accompany thought processes, in reading or writing. The peripheral signal returning would concern segmental, open-loop aspects of language. In networked processing, the centripetal impulses would derive from the centrifugal actuation for egocentric speech and exophasia. The speech organ movement would be an activational carry-over, outside afferent monitoring until a threshold is reached. Linguistic open-loop patterns always to be feedback-mediated for build, only consolidated neural monitoring would remain beyond the formative stage. Endophasia is not bound to occur, also in the same persons.
Cognizance on language performance is intrinsic to the declarative memory, all speech sound shaping to rely on goal-oriented behavior. Therefore, postulates on neural networks heterarchic manner can be affirmed (Puppel, 1992), “top-down” as well as “bottom-up” interactions to make the networked operative mode. It would be the neural interconnectedness to show in the actuational carry-over of endophasia.
Figure 6. Heterarchic interacting of symbolic and sub-symbolic layers of a neural network, a schematic presentation.
Visual representations of neural networks have been schematic by standard, owing to the intricateness of the live, biological reality. Deterministic network volumes might vary for symbolic and sub-symbolic layers, path and pattern real-time co-work to model heterarchy dynamics. To take reading for an example, symbolic paths would connect for text interpretation. Sub-symbolic layers would grant priority to perception and the motor ability to turn pages, or make notes. Network heterarchy thus would most probably be part in negotiation of polysemy.
By standard, speech precedes writing, yet loses the exclusive role for linguistic expression in early years of human life. Most children are aware of existence of written language before learning to read or write. With progress in linguistic acquisition, brain structures generate neural concordance for language production and perception, as well as consolidate spoken and written forms of language. Therefore, the phenomenon of inner speech would be a potential aspect of an inner language faculty, rather than literally inner spoken production.
The inner faculty would be much more independent of auditory processing and comprise variables from brain areas not classed as specialized primarily for language. Without perceivable verbalizing, the inner faculty would act in mathematical and other skill, all coaching to require language, and practice to invite verbal externalization. Orienting responses of linguistic component can help illustrate feedback prominence in the inner faculty work.
- Orienting response of linguistic component
Patterns for individual reaction to novelty are known as orienting responses. Observable in EEG tests, the response brain activity has been part ascribed to the thalamic nuclei pacemaker abilities. The nuclei reconcile on the thalamus feedback network of excitatory and inhibitory neurons (Vander et al., 1985). The faster, beta brain waves arise with focused attention, likely to be accompanied by a slowed heart rate, cranial blood vessel relative dilatation, and pupil width enlargement. Focus may and does not have to bring motor response, in humans (ibidem).
Unlike in behaviorist frameworks to rely on active stimulation, it is also in silent study that a natural orienting response may help isolate meaningful variables, for processing and intellectual elaboration. Wojtaszek (1993) postulated a neural mismatch detection filter, the term of a novelty detector to have been supported by Vander and others (1985). Mismatch or novelty, discernment needs inner feedback for variable analysis within established memory. The process will engage inner language capabilities. Memory prohibitive of language is hardly probable, in unimpeded persons.
Intellectual elaboration will involve the cerebral cortex, the thalamus, and basal ganglia. The hippocampus, amygdala, and diencephalon will participate in forming a memory, as well as a cognitive correlate for the percept (Vander et al., 1985). The cerebellum will sustain readiness for verbal rehearsal, or note making. All these functions, part even labile, are not open-loop or program processes, and rely on feedback.
Visual perception alone exercises extensive feedback with the cerebral cortex. Beatty and Schluroff found semantic incoherence to override syntactic correctness, the pupilometric curve for semantically distorted sequences to approximate that for incidentally structured chunks (in Zimmer, 1993). The matter of neural schemata permanence comes forward, in the light to inner dynamics and work.
- Module autonomy theories
The human mind has been speculated to form “units of knowledge” (Tolman, jednostka wiedzy in Szewczuk, 1984) or “modules” (Fodor, moduł in Kurcz, 1992). The theoretical “processing units” have been purported impermeable to one another as well as to central processes. Concerns of human linguistic permanence and, at the same time, versatility in language behavior would have positioned nativism and empiricism at the extremes of the “black box” and the “blank slate”.
“Module autonomy” was hypothesized to induce “automatic” percepts (Kurcz, 1992). Auditory experiments by Richard and Roslyn Warren (in Grabowska, 1995) requested volunteer evaluation of masked speech formant audio material. The persons reported speech sounds, continuing to conceptualize the distortions also when informed about substitutions. The deliberative processes must have belonged with neocortex functions to associate speech sounds and word sense. The “cocktail party effect” (ibidem) affirms on inter-schematic management to language perception.
Module or processing unit theories become denied also in co-articulatory adjustment (in Puppel, 1992). The adjustment does not impede comprehension, and occurs in monolingual as well as multilingual people. For multilingual persons, speakers of Polish to progress into a proficient, philological study of English for example, are more than likely to develop allophonic variants for Polish that remain imperceivable to persons unaware of the process. The “language switch” would not affect language outside bilingual or multilingual contexts. Graphemic variance might occur as well, along a study of phonetic transcription.
Linguistic practice thus proves that human language learning and use is conceptually motivated (Puppel, 1988). Cognitive grounds for perceiving as well as producing speech are individual, which has interpersonal as well as intrapersonal implications. The brain sustains spectra rather than fixed module values, for multifarious handwriting or font styles, voice and articulatory manner language realizations. Language skill to meet real-time linguistic criteria, the course of a neural function is necessarily fast, yet it cannot be automatic. Speaker or writer content cannot be told before reception of the spoken or written text.
Part the module or processing unit argument came with opinion on language learning and the “critical age”. It is commendable to mind the need for a proportionate time commitment to develop a language strategy. Brain tissue does not impose maturational time spans on language study. In linguistically diverse environments, with advancement in age, or simply following own interest, humans may decide to shape own language skill, especially if not contravening personally established or preferred phonologies and styles. Continuing the pursuit of linguistic permanence, universalist theories on language can be explored. Universals are posited to hold for all natural languages.
- Universalist theories on language
Any written or spoken language is a possible realization of meaning. Humans can vary significantly in verbal response to environment or spontaneous and independent language production, text interpreting, translating, structuring or restructuring, semantic as well as syntactic revision. Search for language universals has inspired conflicting approaches, the “Cartesian” and “Leibnizian” ventures to have become vitally counter-indicative.
Anna Wierzbicka (1999), an acknowledged Polish Leibnizian, proposed a limited set of lexical items for “semantic primitives”. She argumented the “elementary units of meaning” were universal and thus not subject to “semantic decomposition”. With syntax and semantics alone, the primitives were to form a “natural semantic metalanguage”. The word list for all human languages would have had about sixty items to include “I” (Polish “ja”), “you” (Polish “ty” or “wy”), and “word” (Polish “słowo”).
Contrast to the approach may come with a perspective to language as a real-time phenomenon of also phonological value. English languages not only have forms homophonous with the personal pronoun “I”, such as “eye”, or “aye”. They have the objective and dative cases, “me”. Syntactic valence can negotiate word sense. The parameter has been joined with the lexical field by Igor Burkhanov (1998), for example.
To take Polish for a comparison, the corresponding lexical items, “mi”, “mnie”, and “mną” will differ in syntactic valence, owing to the pro-drop parameter of the Polish language. Ignoring the valence, the Polish “To ja” might translate into *”It is I”. Further, the pro-drop parameter might allow interpreting an utterance as “Ja nie wiem” for “It is not me to know”, when compared with “Nie wiem”, “I don’t know”.
“Semantic primes” can be doubted on quantity as well as quality. Sixty items would make a severely impeded vocabulary, the lexical array to be unlikely also in an injured human. Further, the psychological realities for lexeme experiential fields vary, among languages as well as individual speakers. The personal pronoun “you” might be considered polysemous, when compared with the Polish “ty” for the second person singular, and “wy” for the second person plural. The English lexical item “word” would correspond with the Hebrew “davar” that collocates closely with representations for motion and deed. In the psyche of a Greek, “logos” may connote reckoning as well as gathering (Kubiński, 1999).
Therefore, the “semantic primes” do not to bring universal meaning. Further, “semantic decomposition” would fragment or reduce word sense. The real-time, present-day, and standard language does not have the verb “to understand” for “standing under”, despite etymology. “Decomposition” would fail with the adjective “improbable”, as logically premised on discernment as well as extance of probability. Morphologically able to build on the prefix “im–” and the adjective “probable”, speakers cannot “extract” probability from improbability.
Ms. Wierzbicka’s concept of a “natural metalanguage” can be discussed with regard to Cartesian linguistics. René Descartes differentiated human language as not explicable in terms of stimuli or mechanics, from animal communication. He also formulated on his existence as dependent on his thought: it is consciousness to allow the person to perceive own existence and thus to be. His ideas influenced linguists to include Noam Chomsky (Akmajian et al., 1984). Approach to Cartesian linguistics can be selective, with regard to the concept of dichotomy.
The physical structure of the brain is indispensable for there to be perceivable human language and thought. The dual-loop feedback model of Figure 1 presents an ideational duality, the same as Figure 6 model for neural network heterarchy. The illustrations yet do not present body-mind dualities, and they could not be concerned with dichotomies, for feedback functions to exist. The functions are constitutive in the models build.
Computational models for language, as deducing from Noam Chomsky, solicit comment on differences between artificial configurations and live tissue. The notion of the human person remains necessary at the cellular level of natural information processing, where there is ground to posit supra-cellular summation, though there is no premise to assume non-cellular processing. Natural language does not work as prescribed, software consecutions, and there is no brain site that would act as a server.
Further, mathematical or physicist operands would be an arbitrary ascription, to human live neural tissue as biological structures for psychological and linguistic activity. Wiktor Jassem hinted at a possibility for underlying paradigmatic features, within generative phonology (1987). His example held the lexical item “to reduce” for potentially co-actuating phoneme /k/ paths, the phrase “to make a reduction” to be closely synonymous. Arguably, such co-actuation would be likely. Generally, the co-actuation process yet would depend on individual inner lexicons and grammars, for which an all-inclusive or universal, mathematical or physicist framework is not plausible, also owing the dynamic relationship between human language and thought.
Metalinguistic analysis differs Cartesian and Leibnizian stands essentially. Generative linguistics describes a metalanguage as knowledge on language structure and content. Even if intuitively, majority of language speakers are capable of telling nouns from verbs, or commenting on word collocations. The Leibnizian approach by Anna Wierzbicka attributes a superior meaning to a non-representative set to fail with basic spatial percepts, as “up” or “down”, or major temporal reference, as the present, past, or future. Whether in syntax or in semantics, natural language universals never could come to actuality without human brains. Speculation on universality of thought would invite reasoning about human cognition.
- Feedback phenomena and cognition
Human language, knowledge, as well as cognition require human consciousness for discernment, shaping, and practice. Human consciousness can be comprehended as perception of own existence, existence to connote a continued viability. A cognitive process would be that of awareness of own knowledge, the insight also to allow solving problems. To be universal, a cognitive process would need a statistically significant occurrence, such occurrence being impossible without individual humans.
Personal self-sustainment motivates knowledge of own body position and posture. The skeletal muscle-spindle, mechanoreceptor, and vestibular or kinesthetic types of sense data make only part the neurophysiological component in human orientation for own body in physical space (Vander et al., 1985). Humans naturally build cognitive maps, already in early years of life.
Human cognitive mapping is the skill for intellectively operating on spatial parameters of the environment (Puppel, 1996). The “cognitive map” or “cognitive maps” into which a person organizes aspects of experience can contribute to his or her mental reality, that is, inner representation for own self in the world. The competence has been proposed for constituent in the sense of individual ego (Damasio, 2000).
Ontogenetically, the primary notions of “up” and “down” would ensue after those of “front” and “back”. The vertical axis and the horizontal plane are elementary percepts in all unimpeded persons. Cross-linguistic evidence for spatial properties in time expressions has encouraged the term of spatialization (Maciejewski, 1996): unconnected natural languages have been found to project part the lexemic scope for space on expressions that reflect on time, “before” and “after” to make typical examples in English.
The horizontal plane would preponderate in time expressions of Polish as well as Fula, the vertical axis to be prominent in Chinese. Potentially locomotion and travel to bolster the horizontal mark for time as also in English, the movement of the Sun might have inspired at least some of Chinese time expressions (ibidem). As Miller and Johnson-Laird put it (in Puppel, 1992), “The intimate relation of space and time concepts is most apparent in motion, which involves both spatial and temporal changes”.
A culture-independent core of cognizance all humans would have in common yet is improbable, and locution for time and space varies among languages (Maciejewski, 1996). Even basic discernment as for “up” and “down”, or “on” and “in”, may not only receive different lexical labels, but also depart in notionality, to compare Polish and English for the preposition on, the Polish na. Familiar to all language speakers, basic spatial coordinates deny semantics universality, supporting varied expression in language standards.
Of controversial approaches to the language standard, Lev Vygotsky attempted to view human consciousness, language, and behavior as connected with reflexes, for permanence. In Vygotsky’s perspective, speech might inspire consciousness and thus the society, which had a potential to affect speech in turn.
Figure 7. Vygotskian interrelationship of society, speech, and consciousness (compare Pazukhin, 1996/97).
However, speech, consciousness, or society cannot subsist as abstract thoughts only. Knowledge of natural language cannot be purported without the personal, physically effective praxic intellect that partakes in linguistic competence as well as performance, perceivable intrapersonally and in the physical parameters of speech or writing. The Vygotskian schema thus cannot apply to language standard. Human individuals become necessary at each of the nodes of Figure 7, natural language anthropomorphization or programmed development within society to remain impracticable. Therefore, Figure 8 is proposed for a feedback model, cognition to denote intellectual processes along with ability to produce them, and language to include written discourse.
Figure 8. Feedback model for individual linguistic awareness.
The human ego as in Figure 8 is not to complement theories of the psychoanalytic unconscious. The theories are not relevant to grammar. This would be self-induced neural network stochastic actuation in which rather to seek spontaneous linguistic detail. The term ego is to invoke the human person as capable of evolving own language command, also with egocentric language.
The human individual to remain vital for linguistic permanence, Kozielecki (1995) proposed that humans were capable of forming “notional matrices”, for abstract ideas as “triangularity”, or arbitrary sets to emerge in hypothesis making. As brain biological modes for thought, “matrices” might support language permanence. Not only speech sound patterns can be posited to derive from theory-shaping processes of language acquisition. Natural language acquisition and learning should remain in the context of human language standards.
- Language standards development or change
Language can be understood as a human faculty to consist of grammar, semantics, phonology, and graphemics. Written forms of language need to correspond with the phonological component. Animal communication cannot qualify for language, in the strict sense. Though structured, animal signals lack lexical items and syntax, as well as speech sounds and phonology, thus being only codes. Machine codes would further fall short of natural language generative and creative features. New languages continue emerging on Earth.
Origins of language in the human species and on the planet can be placed in evolutionary perspectives. The exact process may never become known. Genetic and cytostructural properties of the human brain, also with focus to the Broca and Wernicke areas, are species-specific. However, genetic change is not inherent to language. Individual language learning and practice, as well as new languages development, do not require or bring genetic transformation.
A common root to all languages is unlikely, also the Proto-Indo-European study to lack coherence in the lexical scopes for households and people, used in language classing or grouping. Words as man, woman, child, or house may not have cross-linguistically cognate word shapes in “family” language sets, to compare Russian and Polish, for example.
Established languages are not fixed realities. They change over time, as observed in diachronic linguistics. These have been mostly urban thriving, trade contact, or cultural and technological progress to commend new linguistic devices. Latin was brought to many European lands by military forces. English spelling, syntax, and semantics assumed Latin patterns via written resources, however. Transition from Old to Middle English to have been associated with the Norman invasion, the Great Vowel Shift, with the broad range to embrace a formed national identity, would have been impossible without persons who spoke, read, and wrote.
Interpersonal rapport and trade continue to power new languages emergence, in modern cultures. Several or at least two languages to have contributed to their form, initially pidgin or Creole tongues happen to become official languages in new country states. Geopolitical conditions may modify governmental recognition of a tongue as a language or a dialect (Comrie et al., 1998). Regard to human faculties will have every dialect for a linguistic entity.
Human writing has had, among others, cuneiform and ideographic notations as of ancient Sumer and Egypt, runes of Scandinavian and Celtic scripts, logographic Chinese, as well as Arabic written representations (ibidem). The Cyrillic to have been widely reported a conscious human device, the left-to-right linear ordering as also of the Latin alphabetic script already has been adapted for most, if not all, human notations. Top-down and right-to-left writing and reading of Chinese or Arabic for example, can show that notation is not universal.
Therefore, these always would be circumstances of relative linguistic permanence in which to consider language universals and standards. “Notional matrices” might hold for systems of writing as arbitrary sets for encoding word sense and sound. Matrix forming yet would be the same process for abstract ideas, whereas there are no abstract letters of alphabet, or speech sounds. Language variance to remain a fact, and the concept of an “archiphoneme” an abstraction, neural schemata as internally formed and managed by a human person would remain the rationale flexible enough, for the observably dynamic reality of human language and speech.
Human inner dynamics have brought the matter of feedback or program priority, in linguistic behavior by humans as beings of an instinct to self-sustain. DNA programs are indispensable for the biological development that allows establishment and use of own linguistic skill. However, the development as well as sustainment would not be possible without feedback capableness, also biologically. Own language activity can be claimed constitutive to the human person, as a vital integrant of brainwork.
Natural language relies on feedback continually, for the parallel-distributed processing of sensory signals, neural network heterarchic coordination, selective focus as in orienting responses of linguistic component, or any neuro-motor behavior of spoken or written language. Volunteers of experimentally altered feedback ability experienced change or even loss of linguistic effectiveness without exception.
The physical structure of the human brain is always person-specific. Individual dynamics to have brought language permanence to focus, linguistic universals in semantics or syntax have been discussed, with regard to language standards. Anna Wierzbicka has posited semantic universality about narrow referential dynamics. Lexical items as I or you yet would vary in semantic and experiential fields. Everyone, saying I or me, means a different person. Further, language skill does not occur without cognition, or coincidentally only with thinking. Neural complexity augments individuality factors, which allows doubt on universal thought processes also for syntax. However, universality of thinking has not been Noam Chomsky’s postulate.
To deliberate on language and cognition, standards may differ in spatio-temporal wording, and diverge in manners to address notions as basic as the present, past, or future. Grammar tactics always needs to be learned, to retain language specificity. History of human linguistic development shows an extensive transfer of knowledge. Devices have been adopted as well as adapted, new languages to continue to emerge. Therefore, natural language can be perceived in terms of individual cognition, ingenuity, and inner logic, as expressible and learnable in language vocal and written forms. To promote good standards for education, criticism on Lev Vygotsky may be used to address tendencies to exteriorize human specificity from language perspectives (as also in Pazukhin, 1996, 1997).
The thesis information framework can support psycholinguistic opposition to behaviorism (Puppel, 1996), not only on grounds of human learning, but also language use. Analysis of language neural and psychological reality allows rejection of operant conditioning. Linguistic finesse would be impracticable with punitive methods, already at the neural level of human functioning to refer to inner equilibrium for agreeableness. Reward approach might encourage linguistic permanence (Akmajian et al., 1984), yet never as qualities set, program, or reflex. Formation of reflex response, conditional or unconditional, has been the objective of behaviorist study and manner.
“Phoneme restoration” as of the Warrens experiment has proved there are no formant absolute values for speech and language. Shortcomings of the masked, phonological component naturally would be overridden by syntax and semantic information types, language to become interpretable with achievement of thresholds for language information pools. Feedback-mediated linguistic performance would deny validity to sustaining artificial qualities in informed language perception as well. Inter-schematic and feedback-reliant threshold functions have been found also in endophasia, thus to decline operant-conditioned constituents for natural speech and language.
Spectra or ranges of variables rather than module fixed values to build individual idiolects, speech and language permanence further does not have the program properties for a finite system. Language segment forming and sequencing would only assist, as open-loop consolidation, in the actual neuro-behavioral priority for the human person to develop a feedback capableness, within own language skill. Focus to individual cognizance shall accompany the Chapter Four analysis on feedback and linguistic deficit, concluding the thesis exploration on feedback significance in human behavioral validity and language.
Feel welcome to tell me what you think, it is my cup of tea to answer. Feedback is posted only upon consent.
A feedback view to natural language acquisition and learning motivates a sense to apply in the field of psychology and to describe feedback as the knowledge of behavior results to influence or modify further performance (Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language, 1989). Knowledge being definable as an information scope gained via experience or study, the thesis information framework can support the psychological meaning.
Language acquisition or conscious learning do not differ in that they require relevant neural pattern formation. Both can be regarded a pursuit of relevant behavioral mastery. Knowledge of result may correspond closely with that of returning of output, however, focus to learning by an individual person might impel a revised intellection on feedback to consider a return to part the input, within own cognitive structures. Following the inquiry, the term of a feedback strategy may be proposed.
For the thesis with footnotes, go to Chapter 2 page
2.1. Language within a program perspective
Linguistic studies have noted on a determination at positioning speech and language within a perspective for human “programming” behavior, own or by another organism. Wiktor Jassem presents an indication by Paul Postal (1987):
“…a language is an infinite set of sentences which are triplets of phonetic, syntactic, and semantic properties generated by a finite abstract project, or grammar, which consists of sets of partially independent elements called rules and a lexicon or dictionary. Such grammars are represented in human neural systems and provide implicit knowledge of the language they define. A grammar is thus in certain ways analogous to a computer program in that it is a formal system partially determining the behaviour of a physical system (…)”
The many theories on a capacity by language to “program” behavior would belong with a different scope of discourse, also as declinable. Feedback to stay in the focus of the present work, two prominent approaches to language development can be quoted.
The nativist party posit that humans are born with DNA-encoded language universals. Nevertheless, Noam Chomsky has stated for his language acquisition device to depend on experience as releaser, as well as on exposure for perfection. The nativist tenets point to insufficiency of environmental variables and the naturalness of the postulated principles of grammar: generative universals can be discerned for unrelated languages (Akmajian et al., 1985).
Cognitive linguists insist on mental capabilities to precede language refinement (ibidem). Intellectual progress would be contingent on information exchange as well as brain maturity, the cognitivist meaning for intellective advancement to subsume ability to extract from experience and build heuristics. The approach places language learning in problem-solving contexts. Nativism or cognitivism, either would highlight human DNA programs in brain structuring. It shall be reasoned that both need feedback phenomena.
Language skill cannot work without memory. Attempts to declare a singular brain site for human memory have been failures without exception. Therefore, the present argument shall selectively adopt the neoconnectionist approach and network memory models. Bruce Derwing’s guideline to build science on the known (in Jassem, 1987) shall be the principium of the inquiry. Derwing’s study of human learning brought him to the conclusion that “no other, special mechanisms or secret abilities are necessary for learning language than learning anything else”. Brain mathematical models have been criticized as unsatisfactory (Damasio, 2000).
2.2. The closed-loop process of neural network formation
Biological maturation alone cannot account for linguistic progress, though specificity increase enhances neural integration, the nervous system to myelinate and also to regulate own bulk by apoptosis. Children of limited language exposure may never attain linguistic finesse, favorable exposure to involve standard spoken and written resources as in libraries and the media, not only language by acquainted people. Since neural schemata are essential in language biological material (Puppel, 1992), pattern establishment is part every linguistic faculty growth. Two most recognized approaches to signal management, behaviorism and connectionism, differ fundamentally.
Ivan Pavlov postulated that learning was substantiated by brain reflex patterns. He ascribed reflex forming to temporal co-occurrence of events. Pavlov’s approach, projected onto human studies and often misjudged as an associationist venture (Szewczuk, 1984), was opposed by American connectionists, who insisted on personal recognition of result or response as a competence of intrinsic affective value. The laws of learning by Edward Lee Thorndike were those of exercise, readiness, and effect. The laws can be compared with human neural pattern forming.
Respectively, exercise would increase the frequency of neural path use. Effect affirming or denying validity, readiness would be a systemic encouragement to rehearse the connectivities to have produced agreeable consequents. Literature in psychology proceeds with augmented attention to neural “labels” for affect, owing to the role in path priority (Goleman, 1997). Associative linkage between brain frontal lobes and limbic system strengthens specificity, in personal realization on the self and the environment (Vander et al., 1985).
Human inner activation may correspond with environmental circumstances. Hull (1940, in Szewczuk, 1984) defined the origin of need as a negative balance between the individual and his or her setting. A behaviorist signaling value would target a human person, either to accommodate his or her inner equilibrium, or to threaten it. Induced co-occurrence of events to force orienting responses would be allowed in the context as well. The role of concomitant conditions came to be stressed by Guthrie (1935, in Szewczuk, 1984).
Worth of simultaneity was questioned already by Thorndike, who insisted the affective component was inherent to all learning. With focus to language, personal congruity and inner equilibrium remain more than only likely to prevail over stimulation existence. For standard as well as school contexts, recognition between an impulse or mere presence is by and large individual. This would be the favored inner signaling value and not frequency or mode of signal objective incidence to encourage neural path forming, especially for educated and fluent language styles.
The affective component should not be understood for emotion alone. Affect involves consciousness and perception, these to necessitate memory, thinking, and personal autonomy. Neural patterning for language can be presented with a closed-loop schema, inner actuation to engage the affective state, and to interdepend with overall neural feedback efficacy. Persons may not find all goals desirable and thus learnable, failure with acceptable skill also to entwine with affective disadvantage. Signaling value should invite and not thwart the inner equilibrium, learning for skill by principle to take personally agreeable objectives, methods, and time spans.
Figure 2. A general, closed-loop schema for neural patterning. S — Signal; A — Inner actuation state to embrace affective congruity; S1 — Memory reflection on signal; S2 — Processed signal inner representation; R1 — Response; R2 — Result.
Figure 2 is to connote actual biological linkages between neurons, as concepts on purely “functional” or “mathematical” connectivities are of no meaning to live nervous systems (Szewczuk, 1984). The generalization is not to commend an oversimplified view of human neural links. The networks are intricate as well as continually active, which precludes the intermediate layers from monitoring. The constituent nodes in the feedback-loop model of Figure 2 are to mean multi-layered structures, able to act as in Figure 3. Live neural networks might not be symmetrical.
The model of Figure 2 includes a memory reflection on signal, whereas it might be impossible to postulate memory-based precedents for novel phenomena. Feedback with lexical and grammatical memory yet would be part of all standard consciousness. Individual lexicons may account for peculiarities, as by majority of people when faced with unfamiliar and unusual objects. Linguistic memory also will allow new perspectives for known objects and phenomena, as well as it most often affords classifying and verbally defining new percepts, in standard words.
Affinity and chemical specificity may account for encoding processes only in a proportion. It would be hypertonic backlash (Szewczuk, 1984), a connectivity-differential and relatively higher neuron tonicity, to partake in validating human memory paths. The hypertonic activation would ensue from neural synergisms brought by signal match within existent memory structures, the process to require intercellular and cellular feedback, by a person-defined neural makeup. Figure 4 presents a generalization for hypertonic backlash as a memory pattern reinforcer.
Figure 4. Natural backlash memory reinforcement. S — Signal, R — Response within the neural network, B — Backlash reinforcement (compare Szewczuk, 1984).
To emphasize language skill, favorable inner activity state A as of Figure 2 can be argued for a vital integrant. In attaining neural synergism, personal congruity would matter in memory forming, as well as work. Further, natural neural chemistry and voltage operate on minim quantities. Already minor disturbances to inner chemical or electric equilibrium might be of adverse consequence to memory and other cognitive functions, in summary to deny validity to stimulus-response approaches for language. Already the inter-schematic level of neural pattern function can bring distinctly individual effects.
2.3. Inter-schematic communication
An absolute or universal definiens on human existence and psyche might be as implausible as undesirable. Attempts to describe human personality remain often arduous, or even controversial, as literary enterprises as well. Human learning yet needs the human person. Even the neurophysiological and species aspects of human learning that are statistic in parameter, such as the limbic or homeostatic feedforward (Vander et al., 1985), require cerebellar and cerebral functions, and these can be highly person-specific. Preattentive processing and habituation correlate with personality factors too, though part reflex. Human sensory, homeostatic, limbic, and cognitive extents engage inter-schematic neural concordance. A singular neural network model to account for human functioning is unlikely, also with focus to language.
Biological networks do not work strictly for language. They are conventional biological forms, also for cytoskeletons and endoplasms. However, there is no ground to predicate uniformity for the motor cortex and the enteric nervous system. There is no singular neural structure to explain personal noesis, just as there is no singular brain locale for human memory. Neocortical neurons, networked across brain regions, severally can give different responses (ibidem). For linguistic faculties, the asset would be a personal potential to employ own skill in unforeseen contexts, and in more than one language.
Language skill builds on neural schemata, as basic biological representations for personally integrated aspects of experience. However the integration would enhance process reliableness, the closed-loop model of Figure 2 is posited to retain validity at the network or inter-schematic level, with emphasis on the resultant connections to be feedback-mediated patterns for flexible habits, rather than strictly biological reflexes. Already orienting response stimuli isolation is person-dependent. The same holds for the more advanced processes of cognitive pursuance on variables, which is not detached from personal congruity.
Building representations, biological or mental, may not be the ultimate goal of human mindwork, and humans have been reported primarily to integrate praxic patterns for skilled behavior (Szewczuk, 1984). Efficient procedural convergence can be proposed for the primary formative in encoding, inactive information to be subject to forgetting (ibidem). Neural layering has been classed into two types, the symbolic and the sub-symbolic connectivities (Puppel, 1992). The sub-symbolic layers would merge for praxic and motor adeptness, symbolic networks to build declarative scopes for intellectual routines as well as creativity.
Pattern constant practice is not necessary in humans. Neural networks can function in basically stochastic or deterministic manners. The random mode may be observed intrapersonally, with volitional fixation of gaze and motor as well as cognitive inactivity. Highly deterministic network behavior may be recognized in skilled and proficient language uses, taken the indispensably co-actuated cerebral specialization in human thought, memories, imagery, and linguistic performance.
Sustained in neural function, feedback has been noted to help verify patterns as well as to uphold their potential for change (Puppel, 1992). It would be the stochastic network mode to add to the readiness as observed by Edward Lee Thorndike, for learning generally. The deterministic mode would partake in exercise of neural command. In networked processing, concern with response as different from signal may arise, whereas “returning of signal” or “signal reiteration” would define feedback as a process. The cerebellum is known to loop back with the neocortex, the function thus can serve for an example.
A cerebellar signal may change or reset an ongoing language sequence. However the cerebellar signal specifically may differ from that to have reached the cerebellum with the sequence onset, it is communication between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex to generate the feedback function. Since command change or reset may even require different signals, biological signal variance does not disqualify the cerebellar role as a feedback capacity. It is the same integrating neural structure to send and receive signal in return to make the constitutive criterion for inner feedback as a closed-loop process.
Cortical management of the cerebellar capability is flexible. The human person may resolve to shape own skill. The notion of the human individual is to invoke personal volition, affect, and intellect, without prescribing on qualities outside educational standards. A natural principle within live humans, feedback reliance can be instinctive.
2.4. Circular reactions in child development
In psychology and physical education, three natural continua for human ontogenetic development have been most acknowledged, the motor, the affective, and the cognitive. The three domains have been found in interaction and rapport to allow the term “psychomotor”, with regard to human locomotion as well as language behavior (Payne and Isaacs, 1987).
The term is not to imply a top-down influence strictly. Motor exercise has been proved beneficial to cognitive ableness, the partial intellectual decline theory to associate aspects of advanced adulthood cognitive slowdown to motor regression (ibidem). For speech and language, the term “psychomotor” emphasizes the necessary priority of the human person, in speaking and writing. The terms of language development rate and order also require comment, as in Crystal, Fletcher, and Garman (1976). Specifically, language acquisition order might show statistic regularities, humans potentially to vary far more in language maturation pace, the order and rate becoming distinct values.
The present projet for language refinement builds on the notion of circular reactions by Jean Piaget. A standard circular reaction would employ introducing changes into a setting, watching the course of alterations effected, and internalizing the cognitively pertinent parameters. Jean Piaget noted circular reactions as infant instinctive behavior. Since this is the human person to make as well as cerebrate on own variables, circular reactions can be considered closed-loop behaviors, the human person to be the actual own focus.
Their natural onset to belong with the sensorimotor stage of human life, the reactions are comprehensibly innate and biologically motivated. Jean Piaget (1992) described the infant at the sensorimotor stage as “thinking by bodily movement”. Up to one, or one and a half months of age, the child would be absorbed with practice of own kinesthetic range. Until around the fourth month, it would be reflex exercise to preoccupy the infant. The child would repeat own earliest, indefinite motor behaviors and watch their course, which has been classed as primary circular reactions.
Secondary circular reactions are primary patterns modified for new circumstances. The sensorimotor repetitiveness to have introduced form analysis, the child learns to combine patterns, and attempts integrating own sensory awareness and motor command in prolonged workout. Secondary schemata help improve movement coordination.
Around twelve months of age, the interplay of sensory, motor, and cognitive powers progresses into tertiary reactions. Trial and error to help develop prediction on events beyond immediate manipulation of objects, the child shows increased interest in the environment, the notion to involve other humans. In object handling, acting through others emerges, and inspires socializing. Objective localization gradually to replace egocentric spatial awareness, the coincidence-anticipation timing ability grows into directional cognizance. The skill later acts in such academic tasks as reading (Payne and Isaacs, 1987).
Circular reactions can be viewed as closed-loop rehearsal, in providing percepts to the very human to have initiated the process. Importantly, circular functions would require a return to part the working input, and return to part the output has made the primary definition of feedback in the present work. Every human person to be an entity, learning altogether yet would include making variables within own neural structures. A view to the question of inner executive controls can help illustrate the matter.
2.5. Case’s executive controls theory
Robbie Case, a psychologist, attempted to incorporate Jean Piaget’s approach in the information processing perspective. He postulated that new executive controls accounted for increased intellectual means in cognitively refining children. The concept of new executive controls was to denote “the current ways of representing the world coupled with the child’s current strategies with specific kinds of problems” (Wortman et al., 1988).
Case evaluated the short-term memory and intellective strengths by the complexity of tasks the children were able to complete. He accepted chunking for a possible enhancement to the short-term scope. The researcher presented children with two tasks for which he assumed the same logical insight, those to be quantity evaluation by number and volume. He found competence in estimating number accompanied by inability to define volume a regular pattern, among six-year-olds. He premised an executive controls discrepancy he named a horizontal décalage (ibidem).
Though the short-term physical capacity is speculated not to change past maturation (Wortman et al., 1988), intellective skill does augment in normally progressing humans. The matter of executive controls can be seen as that of inter-schematic effectiveness, further to correspond with the notion of working memory. Human working memory has been stipulated for either the actual short-term capability, or an inventory to mediate between the short-term and the long-term. The performance has been exposited as potentially labile (Kurcz, 1992).
Intellectual competence is impossible without linguistic advancement. All languages discern between number and mass, countability to precede a grasp of the grammatical article, in acquisition of French as well as English. Generally, estimates on volume or mass need grammatical articles or, also in languages not to operate the articles, demonstratives or determiners. Grammatical gender is another connotation, for French and other languages that assign gender. Therefore, the “horizontal décalage” might be disputed as suggesting a lag where there would not be delay: mastery of grammatical determinateness is not expected of the six-year-old.
Inner grammar structures cannot work without the child’s forming and integrating them. In linking mass or volume and determinateness, the child would be making inputs within own brain connectivity. Volume or mass assessment would embrace broader neural linkage for grammar than telling the number alone. Neural integration would require a return to part own inputs. The “horizontal décalage” would narrate on a normal and standard developmental stage, in which the interschematic coherence is not sufficient.
Ways of representing the world and concurrent strategies with problems are personality factors. Learning may, yet does not have to alter personal attitudes. Learning always to require inner networking, a feedback strategy rather than new controls can be proposed, for promotion of human linguistic and intellective skill. A successful strategy would evolve into a flexible repertoire of linguistic behaviors to advance personal language proficiency for an objective.
2.6. Circular and feedback exercise in language development
Even if intuitively, capability for language use is a goal essentially the same for all humans. Similarities in language acquisition by different persons may result from language structures, as well as natural functioning of human brains. In a projet that minds the feedback-mediated processes of neural networking, initial stages of language learning can be compared with circular reactions.
Most children have an extensive aptness to imitate speech sounds, make analogies in linguistic structures, and to reason inductively. Language development begins with elementary vocalizing or cooing, which is instinctive. The vocal practice can be viewed as corresponding with the sensorimotor coaptation for movement directionality. Children usually become imitated by more grown humans, the earliest “proto-conversations” to make ground for group sense in language comportment, already in the first year of life.
The one-word stage in language development would correlate with primary circular reactions: the child repeats single words or sound clusters to act as syllables or lexemes, the worth of response to be not only in interacting or fulfilling need, but also in validating vocal patterns. Rich utterance interpretation and paraphrasing may embolden progress into the “gimme” or “allgone” units of meaning as by Crystal (1976). The verbalizations merge past, one-word patterns for language behavior, and a parallel between them and secondary circular reactions can be posited.
A language strategy may occur between the ages two or three. Asking Why-questions, when the answer is known, just the ways to ask questions not fully mastered, may exemplify a developing strategy. The language standard always to remain beyond powers for arbitrary manipulation, the repetitiveness may reflect on success with language tertiary circular reactions, initially often “telegraphic” styles to have gained grammar via recurrent use and restructuring of phrases. Humans can vary remarkably in strategies, especially in intonation, syntax, vocabulary, as well as interlocutor choices (ibidem).
Environmental closed-loop linguistic activity as in Figure 1 would begin to take shape as early as with language secondary circular reactions. Already in young learners, dependence on environment would later diminish, an individual linguistic strategy to motivate the decision to continue with a distorted utterance or even to speak at all, at the scope of a single syllable or even a speech sound. The closed-loop manner of egocentric speech usually assists the progress towards linguistic and intellectual sovereignty.
2.7. The closed-loop behavior of egocentric language
Egocentric speech occurs most often spontaneously, in children aged two to seven years. Children rehearse locution with regard to own behavior, being themselves the intended perceivers of the spoken exercise. Egocentric talk strengthens procedural thinking (Jurkowski, 1986). Playing or resolving on a task, the child may comment on concurrent as well as anticipated events, verbalization to expedite activity planning and modeling.
In spoken form, self-oriented practice can help shape phono-articulatory behaviors. By standard, language egocentric written form would follow and facilitate neuro-motor consecution for the graphemic language representations known as handwriting. Self-improvement would would be in harmonizing the neural potential for exercise, readiness, and effect, personal congruity as in Figure 2 to encourage individual esthetics as affective advantage.
With neural networking, egocentric language integrates declarative and procedural memory paths. The former build inner schemata for thinking, problem solving, and thus cognizance of behavior. The latter connect closely, for neuro-motor adeptness in spoken or written self-expression. In an advanced form, the intrinsic coherence may become inner speech (Pazukhin, 1996/97). The inner rapport might never emerge without the closed-loop behavior of egocentric talking.
Egocentric language may originate in an instinctive need for neural networking to enhance language open-loop sequences. However, language sequencing never is the ultimate goal of maturational exercise. The purpose would be in linguistic flexibility that allows independent study as well as communication in speaking and writing environments. A feedback strategy to afford the versatileness would be a combination of means of context-aware ordering as well as temporal plane, not predictable in terms for a program.
The Progressive “ing” to happen before standard use of the plural or possessive “s”, caution as recommended by Crystal and others (1976) remains advisable in adopting charts or lists about language acquisition order. The linguistic activity to design on egocentric feedback as in Figure 1, much of the early self-oriented practice content as well as purpose is grammar and language written or sound shape.
With study or problem solving, intrapersonal communication continues throughout and well past adolescence. In note making, the author of the written message comes to be the reader (Pazukhin, 1996/97). Individual or cursory character of such messages may make them unintelligible to recipients other than the author. At the core of circular language behaviors and egocentric speech, there would be actually a closed-loop inner interplay on inner and environmental variables, a generally feedback pattern for human learning and function can be presented.
1. The motmot had completely befallen for a piece of fresh stollen.
2. The skylark found nothing to outbid the bit of cosmos with a squid. 🙂
7. The little bat always (cut) the coconut a bit imprecise, cooking the rice to suffice all sojourning mice.
8. The mountain cat usually (sit) on his mat to chat with the standpat spat on habits and repast. 🙂
2.8. The generally feedback pattern in human learning and function
Forming variables and their cognitive exercise are valid behaviors across the lifespan. Especially patterns for problem solving or discard become reinforced with defaults of compound inner determinants, a default to denote neural conciliation without much analysis, for standard contexts. Humans are capable of shaping own inner schemata well beyond maturational stages of life. Everyday existence necessitates management of novel circumstances and information for which pre-formed knowledge cannot be posited. Growth, exception, and change of synaptic significance are part every human life (Vander et al., 1985).
Learning does not take extended neural link uses only, but also path natural delimitating. Neural connectivity expands in initial stages of a cognitive process. Further phases bring connectedness reducing to dimensions within neural economy (Kurcz, 1992). Biological concision pertains with neural tissue, assisting considerable preservation of knowledge without much spatial requirement on the brain. Connectivity broadening as well as restriction would depend on inner feedback.
Formed neural schemata are not changeless. Also for language, even well established paths may recede without systemic actuation, as in language users to lose the capacity in desuetude. In linguistically impoverished environments, the stylistic grasp for hidden language functions as rhetorical questions may never appear. Style modeling in improved or literary contexts remains possible in adults, which emphasizes the importance of education and study. Language dynamics can be observed about monolingual as well as multilingual persons, dynamics to mean change within norm.
Closed-loop, egocentric and environmental externalization to have invited a feedback strategy, human learning may develop into thinking variables of no direct outward form. Advanced neural connectedness most often renders continual note making or verbal rehearsal expendable. Learning via silent reading would motivate elaboration on own inner inputs, the process to continue referring to inner equilibrium for agreeableness. Therefore, lifespan efficacy can be posited for the closed-loop manner of relevant pattern forming, as illustrated in Figure 2.
Cerebellar function already has served an analysis of feedback as a process constitutively to solicit for the same integrating neural structure to send and receive signal in return. The criterion would hold for cognitive inner inputs. Concepts to stratify human personality and thus yield to speculation on “inner cognitive outputs” cannot uphold the properties of a human psyche as a dynamic entity. There being no brain area specialized strictly for learning, these would be neural network relevant nodes to feed back for skill acquisition and use. A reservation needs to be made on the relaxed time frame to accompany ascent in human inner hierarchy.
Experiments with conditioned learning have discerned a major tolerance for reinforcement delay, in complex cognitive processes (Kurcz, 1992). Indeed, neural process time envelope is very strict for single cells, the temporal allowance to become much broader for the brain entire. However, conditioning would be an attempt to expand on a program notion for human learning, in the use of concomitants, elements often not inherent to the object of study. Feedback phenomena not to impose immediacy on intellection either, learning that promotes consciousness of inner variables might favor integration without postponement.
Human genetic endowment might never have come to effect for language, without feedback functions. The nativist language acquisition needs feedback-mediated neural networking, as well as the closed-loop behavior of egocentric speech. The cognitivist idea for refinement solicits inner reconciliation of neural networks, for the ability to extract from experience. Nature or nurture, all language hypotheses have had to refer to the human brain, for purpose in actual production and comprehension of language. The brain can be viewed as using principally an interplay of closed-loop processes, for learning.
Feedback reliance is innate, taken the early onset of closed-loop behaviors. Primary circular reactions would result from an instinctive need for inner networking. Connectionist laws of learning by Edward Lee Thorndike do compare with natural neural network formation, with only conducive aspects of development to further linguistic progress. The one-word, two-word, and further stages do not necessitate repeating the sensorimotor gestural rehearsal, the same to apply to early tongue movements. Closed-loop processes can be postulated also for advanced learning of no externalization.
Natural networks are biological linkages, for which a singular superior neural structure cannot be purported. Brain language areas do not cover all human skill acquisition, as well as they do not contain all connectivity to account for neuro-motor behavior. This being also common sense that learning a natural language requires a human person, the notion of human personality is to connote individual human will, emotion, and thought, without expectation on personal qualities outside educational standards.
Bruce Derwing’s guideline that natural language is learnable can be supported by education statistics, validity of Thorndike’s laws of learning, and the necessarily species properties of human neural network build as initially instinctual, therefore mandated by DNA. However, not only personality factors would deny reality to natural language as a program. Migration has proved that little children learn languages of their environments, already adolescents can choose and prioritize languages of preference, and individual learning styles may involve extended internalization time, for which “late speakers” yet do not require remedial. The facts indicate that feedback is not just an ancillary programming process.
Human individuation may manifest as early as the second or third year of life, in language and speech strategies. These personal strategies progress into comportment to allow abstracting from experience. The absolute requirement for a program to be that the open-loop sequence is pre-determined from beginning to end, the qualification cannot be maintained for literary as well as everyday language styles and subtleties. Human grammars thus would be more of projects by individual human minds. Project constituents would work dynamically, also in contexts new and open, only feedback strategies might confer versatileness enough to manage.
Feedback strategies do not make an imperative of interpersonal communication. Egocentric language may continue well beyond adolescence. Spoken or written, resource or own linguistic activity may become a literary and personal pleasure not to pledge group engagement. Maturity might even promote egocentric and inner feedback, in the generally feedback pattern for human learning.
A natural process within a live person, feedback cannot be strictly a return to part the output. Personal linguistic command needs own inner inputs, already in earliest stages of language learning. Priority for either skill programming or reliance on feedback must be deliberated, with regard to the human cerebrum as a biological formation to enable personal instinct to self-sustain. Chapter Three also is to examine if human brain universal variables might objectively and physically exist.
Recognition of human language processing as human processing of information requires consistency with regard to notions as a processing system, processing of options, a program, information pool, signal specificity, and use of feedback. Human logical skill does not work in denial of the nervous system. The system shall be discussed as the information processing and managing structure, beginning with the single cell, and ending with the intricate connectedness of the human brain. Coherence averred in the above terms, natural feedback shall be appreciated for a principled phenomenon.
For the thesis with footnotes, go to Chapter 1 page
Prerequisite for logical and scholarly ability, human language processing can be viewed as human processing of information. Terms as a system, program, and option being necessary for analysis of information processing phenomena, notions correlative with computer science need not imply close a correspondence, as natural language remains a scope of skill unmatched by artificial parsing. Therefore, human neurophysiology shall be the primary reference, for the following discourse to comprehend the role of feedback in human language command.
For the content with footnotes, go to the Introduction page