Conscious human experience becomes possible with the working of a structure known as the human mind. Though not defined universally, it would be the mind to integrate thinking as well as feeling, and build cognizance. For all known circumstances, the neural reality of the brain is indispensable for the mind structure work. However, neurophysiology can offer a limited perception only on the relationship between brain functioning and consciousness (Vander et al., 1985).
Injury or impairment cannot measure unimpeded language command. The reservation to hold for all the subsequent discourse, feedback impoverishment shall be presented along with related language deficiency, to encourage understanding for the potential role of feedback in individual cognizance. Psycholinguistics is a field of possible application in language therapy as well (Encyklopedia Językoznawstwa Ogólnego, 1993).
For the work with footnotes, visit Chapter 4 page.
4.1. Feedback deficiency and language motor component
Impediment to the cerebellar function may result in ataxic dysarthria (Styczek, 1983), which cleaves the fine movement of the speech act into phono-articulatory segments. The accentuated syllabic sequences would show little or no differentiation for syntactic properties of predicates, complements, or structure heads. The person is aware of own malfunction, yet may be neurally handicapped in learning new motor patterns (Vander et al., 1985).
Essential in management of speech and language open-loop aspects, the cerebellum cannot work without feedback with the cerebral cortex. Brainstem is part the linkage. The paths are part uncrossed and allow a degree of compensation, when corticospinal control is hampered (ibidem). Brainstem impairment may cause disorders to speech segmentation as well as visual language processing, also when cerebellar function is preserved. Injury can induce prolonged or permanent loss of consciousness known as coma, which may resist remedial.
Corticospinal tracts complement brainstem connectivity in postural management, yet the compensation is never complete (Vander et al., 1985). The connections help the fine movement of the fingers and hands, crossing for opposite sides of the body in the medulla oblongata. Corticospinal damage slows, weakens, and may even arrest motion, as in the grip of the hand. Respiratory spasticity would increase articulatory effort, or even make speech impossible.
With impediment, corticobulbar pathways might become divisive, in control of the muscles of the eyes, face, tongue, and throat. For undisturbed speech and language, the connectivity can be classed with corticospinal or pyramidal communication. Spastic dysarthria can make speech unintelligible. The person is aware of impediment, corrective exercise yet might be difficult, owing to corticospinal activity naturally remaining part outside interoception. Corticospinal as well as corticobulbar paths gain feedback from local motor neurons and interneurons, which is of potential assistance in therapy.
Human neural matter for language never relies on feedback-independent effect. Taking tongue innervation for an example, the hypoglossal nerve is efferent, yet it arises in the medulla oblongata, a major neural coordination structure of the brainstem. The glossopharyngeal, trigeminal, and facial nerves have both motor and sensory fibers, and thus make feedback connections. Distortions to tongue innervation may bring dyspraxias or apraxias.
4.2. Feedback functions and language mental processing
Human brains have strong compensating powers and not every type of injury results in permanent damage to intellective abilities. This is intrinsic feedback to inform the brain about loss, and these may be feedback faculties to cancel the consequent impediment. Restoration of a scope of mind may happen spontaneously, without therapist assistance (Wortman et al., 1988).
Language engages both brain hemispheres. The corpus callosum is an important part in the brain inner feedback, for linguistic performance as well as competence. Discord in conveyance can evoke epileptic seizures and temporary or persistent language difficulty. Severance impedes acoustic and visual stimuli comprehension. With disjoined brainwork, numbers, letters, or short words might be recognized with hemispheric exposure. Syntactic structures would require that the linguistically dominant hemisphere is co-activated. Humans differ in hemisphere linguistic specialization, the left hemisphere statistically to prevail (Akmajian et al., 1984).
Anomia may ensue from a lesion to the dominant angular gyrus (ibidem). The person may have difficulty in finding words or choosing object names, when facing a choice. Repetition skills may remain standard. An impact in early years of life may induce function transfer to the other hemisphere, which applies to brain language capabilities overall. The transfer would take place without conscious control. Angular gyri have been described for their eminence in sensory signal synchronization and operating on compound parameters (Puppel, 1992).
Conduction dysphasia may follow a tempoparietal failure. The tissue acts in synthesis of word meaning and form (Akmajian et al., 1984). Spoken or written discourse may retain fluency, yet become verbose and asyntactic. Language reproduction may become grossly discomposed. Neurological research ascribes the disorder to a diminished capacity by the Broca and Wernicke areas to communicate. Conduction impediments may withdraw, to belong with dysphasias as disturbances in partially sustained language command. Dysphasias are associated with better prospects for recovery, aphasias to connote absent linguistic abilities (Styczek, 1983). Feral children stay aphasic, without proper care.
Cognizance on the distortion may be limited, in persons affected by conduction impediments. Attention to egocentric analysis, and thus the intracerebral ability to feed back, can be of therapeutic importance. A patient described as a motor-kinesthetic aphasic improved after self-monitoring exercise (Tłokiński, 1982). A recording of his utterances was made, and the patient became aware of his speech sound substitutions, after listening to the tape. Previous correction by therapist had been unsuccessful. Efficiency of glottodidactics, the practice to narrow the focus to articulation solely, continues to be questioned for unimpeded persons as well (ibidem).
In retrograde amnesia, memory of the events around the time of the incident may be lost or even never formed. Previous knowledge may be re-accessed with recovery (Wortman et al., 1988). Trauma circumstances would have no function in brain inner feedback reestablishment for pre-traumatic experience, or later progress. Concerning neural paths damaged or never formed, exact reconstruction cannot be purported, with hypnotic therapies as well. Anterograde amnesia is a difficulty in neural path and schemata forming. The deficit pertains with working memory (ibidem). Trauma awareness is usually limited or absent, in amnesic persons. Physical as well as chemical impact on brain tissue can be diagnosed with MRI techniques. Egocentric analysis to embrace language skill may help cognizance and recovery.
4.3. Eyesight impediment and feedback-mediated compensation
In eyesight deficiency, natural compensation confers increased importance to auditory, tactile, kinesthetic, and proprioceptive modalities. Hearing and touch attain special prominence for verbal activity and learning. Synthetic and analytic functions of touch to correspond with passive and active fashions of palpation (Sękowska, 1985), it would be analytic touch to assist reading or writing in Braille, when of preference to voice-mediated technologies. Tactile and auditory variables would participate in brain spatial schemata, linguistic activity to encourage human natural mapping in transcending the boundaries of direct physical surroundings, as through study and literature.
Acoustic echo can serve environment active exploration. An eyesight-impeded person may use a walking stick or another source of interpretable resonance. The “hypothetical obstacle indicator” by Dolański (in Sękowska, 1985) can support a view to human neural networking as related to personality factors. Mr. Dolański suffered from an acquired eyesight deficit. He reported increased facial sensitivity in circumstances he thought likely to bring unexpected obstacles. He emphasized his feeling protective about his face, describing the pattern of sensory reaction.
The kinesthetic modality may partake in cognizance of time and walking distances, with conscious exercise. Proprioception can help organize the impeded person’s environment, projecting on his or her body orientation and physical space. The skills would be useful individually, there being no universal walking paces or sensory aptness (ibidem). Visual limitation comes with immediate awareness of the sensory deficit. Trauma management always needs to be individual as well as cognizant, however.
4.4. Hearing impediment and compensation
Auditory difficulty induces compensation with focus to visual and tactile variables. Touch may become the essential modality for articulatory patterns (Styczek, 1983), lip reading to help comprehend spoken discourse. In lesser extent, eyesight and tongue tactile variables help phono-articulatory behavior also in unimpeded humans. Importantly, spontaneous adjustment cannot suffice for language, and awareness of hearing deficit may depend on gradual or instant occurrence, as well as degree.
Human syntactic abilities should not be discerned in terms of written language solely (Crystal et al., 1976), and auditory deficiency has been noted to hamper syntax. However, natural language acquisition should stay of reference for all children, with reservation on individual learning styles: language structures to appear erroneous may belong with a linguistic strategy developmental stage, in impeded as well as unimpeded persons. Function words, as the articles or prepositions, may require special focus by the hearing deficient student, natural rather than telegraphic speech to be recommendable for entire remedial practice (ibidem). Capacity for intonation exercise will depend on the degree of hearing deficiency.
Whether language deficit would be perceived for literally delay, where the child’s language is at the level of his or her juniors, or pertain with sets of language forms, language deviance (in Crystal et al., 1976) would be a phrasing of hindered adequacy, in comparison with that of language disadvantage. The concept of an “ideal speaker” against which to measure the stipulated “deviance” cannot befit a generative perspective not to endorse universality of thought processes.
Hearing is essential in development of egocentric speech. Written egocentric language may help the inner linguistic faculty emerge, whether a hearing aid or auditory prosthesis would be of resolve. Dictionary phonetic script or respelling may enable linguistic elaboration of also literary qualities. Cognitive mapping might not require assistance, in hearing-impeded persons.
4.5. Learning difficulty and feedback functions
Researchers have associated learning difficulty with central nervous system shortcomings, there yet has been much discord on neurological assessment (Bryan and Bryan, 1982). Social grounds have been termed of circumstance, too. Children may become slower in reactions, deficient in attention spans, or even inhibited in cortical activity, owing to abuse, neglect, or stress solely. Language skills are at the core of scholarly evaluation worldwide.
To focus on particulars constitutive in learning, Hallahan and Reeve named failure in verbal rehearsal or grouping of information, in school delay (ibidem). Curricula continue to emphasize egocentric language, note making and skill practice to be prerequisite for academic achievement. Physical education to belong with most courses of study, learning-deficient children have been found of discomfort with sports activity as well. This inspired attempts at physical exercise to actify a stipulated kinesthetic instrumentality in cognitive progress. The “catch-up” was reported of small or even no assistance to intellection, especially in children of severe delays (Payne and Isaacs, 1987).
Pharmacological remedial became rejected by parents and students, as resulting in state-dependent learning (Bryan and Bryan, 1982). In the feedback perspective, altered chemoaffinity would have interfered with the natural inner feedback, in neural link build and lifework. The psychological consequence of investing motivation in medical and thus extrinsic factors also proved disadvantageous.
Hallahan, Kneedler, and Lloyd (ibidem) reported success with a task to monitor own attention:
“To do this, children wore wrist counters, and upon hearing unpredictable signals they were supposed to ask themselves whether they were attending to the task. If they felt that they were, they could press the wrist counter and proceed with the business at hand. If they felt that they were not, they could not go on with the lesson. This simple procedure was found to be quite effective in increasing the child’s time on task” (Bryan and Bryan, 1982).
The task strengthened egocentric feedback. Learning-deficient students usually are aware of own demerit, especially in connection with school and peer environments. The self-consciousness would not motivate to work, and techniques to drive focus to other children’s accomplishment or defeat most frequently were failures (ibidem). Learner autonomy was probably the motive for the three-and-a-half-year-old in Crystal and others (1976), who favored role-playing to forced-alternative elicitation. Linguistic advancement, as well as remedial, have not been found to require separate techniques for boys and girls.
Human information metabolism: schizophrenia
Neurological research has redefined schizophrenia as a somatoform disorder, neuro-imaging to have detected differentiative biological structuring of altered function, in patient brains (Vander et al., 1985). Schizophasia was recognized as a speech-language deficit by Irena Styczek (1983). Antoni Kępiński, a psychiatrist, perceived the illness as related to human information processing (1972).
Many habitual and routine behaviors become goals for conscious decision making, in a schizophrenic patient. Cognitive mapping is handicapped, along with ability to integrate sensory modalities. Affected persons may report hallucination, as well as have difficulty sustaining focus. Brain evoked latency potentials in EEG testing have been described as only possibly indicative (Wojtaszek, 1993). Volunteer intoxication, compared with patient results, can confirm the somatoform character of the disorder (Vander et al., 1985).
Undisturbed cognitive functions involve own thought processes, as well as rejection of data. The human brain is a structure to integrate and regulate primarily the inner environment. Intrinsic as well as extrinsic variables are continually subject to verification, sustainment, inhibition, or denial. Part these processes remain outside consciousness (Vander et al., 1985). Antoni Kępiński (1972) coined the term of a distorted “information metabolism”, to link defects in the inner management and schizophrenia.
Schizophasic speech would allow articulatory proximity and phonological semblance to direct the mostly monologuist and spoken language activity. Impediment to semantic and syntactic aspects of language may manifest in extensive use of neologisms (Kępiński, 1972). Awareness of the disorder may vary. Severely affected persons would show little capacity for linguistic self-correction (Styczek, 1983).
Parallel and correlate information analysis holds for human brains regardless of age, and in cases of distortion as well. Individual integrity and cognizance emphasize inner and egocentric feedback along with intrinsic timing. It is inner feedback to allow consciousness of disturbance, and feedback is indispensable for brain reorganized function. Management of natural, intrinsic feedback information thus can be stated fundamental to human mindwork.
The importance of inner feedback becomes most marked with distortions as conduction or amnesic impediment in mental language processing. It is upon egocentric analysis that the person may recognize a shortcoming and try to reconstitute own ability, therapist intervention potentially to remain inoperative otherwise. In comparison, damage to language motor aspects would become noticed almost reflexly, with mental processing preserved.
Sensory hindrance, whether acquired or inborn, induces natural compensation within modality pool. Importantly, inner feedback allows continued use of the gnostic parameters to have belonged with the deficient sense. Persons of acquired visual impediment remain able to use visual imagery, and hearing loss does not have to dismiss verbal reference to auditory experience. However, human inner connectedness would not support concepts of “sensory modality translation” (in Sękowska, 1985). Extra-liminal perception of no physical component cannot be postulated, for humans altogether. These would be cognitive-perceptual correlates rather than “sensory translation” to work for speech and language, in impeded persons as well.
Importance of inner feedback and intrinsic timing also would show in the ailment known as schizophrenia. The altered neural performance might not result from distribution solely, as the illness happens to remit (Kępiński, 1972), and healthy individuals may develop schizophrenia-like variables under controlled intoxication. Prognoses for recovery vary among researchers (Laing, 1999), the emphasis to remain on proper diagnostics and therapy. Language egocentric feedback conscious exercise might be of help.
For remedial, linguistic strategies can apply best in alleviating language difficulty, as noted by Crystal and others (1976). A natural principle of innate manifestation, feedback exercise can assist in monitoring own language production, by language learners as well as persons of impediment. Environmental feedback of role-playing, or egocentric training in self-assessment, can be regular activities in the language classroom and a therapy lounge. Comparison of impediment and foreign study (Crystal et al., 1976) yet never should bring projection of language disadvantage on mainstream language learners.