Useful tags

“Information metabolism”

Concept by the Polish physician and psychiatrist Antoni Kępiński to refer to human information processing for rejection or acceptance of variables


A. L. Hodgkin and A. F. Huxley ionic hypothesis

Hypothesis that cell membranes had ion channels; Hodgkin-Huxley theory became confirmed decades later, the researchers to have been Erwin Neher, Bert Sakmann, and Roderick MacKinnon.


Active protein

Protein to bind a signaling molecule, as GTP


Alan Lloyd Hodgkin English physiologist and biophysicist, co-author of the action potential theory.


Andrew Huxley

English physiologist and biophysicist, co-author of the action potential theory.


Autonomic nervous system

Subdivision of the nervous system to regulate vegetative function, as the heart rate, digestive, or respiratory processes; by and large involuntary


Brain integrative fibers

Brain neural fibers of principally three types, the associative to communicate areas within the same hemisphere; projection processes to link the cortex with the brainstem, the basal ganglia, the cerebellum, and the spinal cord; the transverse paths to intercommunicate the hemispheres, the corpus callosum making the most acknowledged connective


Brain primary cortices

Cortex by tissue structure or cortices by location, bilateral; brain primary receptive areas for sensory signal, as auditory or visual


Brain secondary or gnostic cortices

Cortex by tissue structure or cortices by location, bilateral; brain associative tissue for sensory signal further processing within brain structures


Brainstem reticulate structure

Net-like brainstem structure for nuclei vital in consciousness and learning, connecting with the entire brain


Central nervous system

Brain and spinal cord part of the nervous system, responsible for awareness, voluntary behavior, and learning


Corticospinal tract

Voluntary movement fibers, inclusive of corticobulbar connectivity in undistorted humans


Cranial nerves

12 pairs of fibers to emerge from the brain, trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, hypoglossal, facial, auditory or vestibulocochlear, accessory, vagus, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, abducens, and olfactory; the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus, abducens, and trochlear nerves consist of both motor and sensory fibers, qualifying for feedback connectivities thoroughly



Deoxyribonucleic acid to encode genetic instructions for organism development and function



Biological or psychological inner urge to stimulate response, incite or repress action, as well as a basic and instinctive need


Edward Lee Thorndike

American psychologist, worker in comparative psychology and learning processes, author of the theory of connectionism


Egocentric feedback

For language, self-oriented sensory capacity as of hearing or tongue tactile variables in speech, visual or tactile monitoring of own written language production


Environmental feedback

For conversational exchange, the sensory monitoring, mostly visual or auditory


Exteroceptive feedback

Monitoring of sensory capacities to concern the outside or outer scopes for the body, as hearing, vision, or touch


Extrinsic timing theories

Theories to exclude timing from neural processing for language, based on human ability to speak slow or fast, and in denial of language impediment evidence as well as findings on neural integration